Izinhlobo zenhlabathi

izinhlobo zenhlabathi ezikhona

Ezinhlelweni ezahlukene zeplanethi yethu ziningi izinhlobo zenhlabathi ezincike ezimweni zemvelo ezifana nesimo sezulu, izimila, imvula, amandla omoya kanye nezici ezinhlanu ezakha umhlabathi: isimo sezulu, idwala elingumzali, impumuzo, isikhathi nezinto eziphilayo ezihlala kuwo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngezinhlobo ezahlukene zenhlabathi ezikhona, izici nokubaluleka kwazo.

Incazelo yenhlabathi nezakhi

izinhlobo zenhlabathi

Umhlabathi uyingxenye engaphezulu esebenza ngokwebhayoloji yoqweqwe lomhlaba, okubangelwa ukuhlakazeka kwamadwala noma izinguquko zomzimba kanye namakhemikhali kanye nezinsalela zemisebenzi yebhayoloji ehlala kuwo.

Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla, isifunda ngasinye somhlaba sinezinhlobo ezahlukene zenhlabathi. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi izici zokwakheka kwenhlabathi ziyashintsha endaweni yonke. Ngokwesibonelo, isimo sezulu somhlaba wonke sihlukile, isimo sezwe sihlukile, izidalwa ezihlala kuwo nazo zihlukile, njll. Ngakho inhlabathi ishintsha kancane kancane ukwakheka kwayo njengoba sidlula ezindaweni ezihlukene zemvelo.

Umhlabathi wakhiwe izingxenye ezihlukahlukene ezifana netshe, isihlabathi, ubumba, umquba (izinto eziphilayo ezibolayo), amaminerali, nezinye izakhi ngezilinganiso ezihlukene. Singahlukanisa ukwakheka kwenhlabathi ngalezi:

  • izinto ezingaphili njengesihlabathi, ubumba, amanzi nomoya, yebo
  • Izinto eziphilayonjengezinsalela zezitshalo nezilwane.

I-humus yiyona yonke into ephilayo ebolile eyenza umhlabathi uvunde. Kusukela emaqabunga omile kuya ezidunjini zezinambuzane, ayingxenye ye-humus yenhlabathi. Lokhu kutholakala ezingqimbeni ezingaphezulu, futhi kanye namanye amaminerali, kuphenduka kube phuzi-mnyama, okukunikeza izinga eliphezulu lokuzala.

izakhiwo zomhlabathi

idlelo

Umhlabathi uyahlukahluka ngokwakheka kwawo, amakhemikhali, kanye nemvelo.

Izakhiwo zomzimba

Ukuthungwa kunquma isilinganiso sezinhlayiya zamaminerali ezinobukhulu obuhlukahlukene obukhona emhlabathini. Isakhiwo yindlela izinhlayiya zomhlabathi ezihlangana ngayo ukuze zakhe ama-aggregate. Ukuminyana kuthinta ukusatshalaliswa kwezimila. Umhlabathi ominyene uyakwazi ukusekela izitshalo eziningi. Izinga lokushisa liphinde libe nomthelela ekusabalaleni kwezimila, ikakhulukazi ngokuphakama. Umbala uncike ekubunjweni kwawo futhi ushintsha ngokuqukethwe komswakama wenhlabathi.

Izici zamakhemikhali

  • Amandla Okushintshanisa: Kuyikhono lenhlabathi ukushintshanisa ubumba nomquba, okunikeza izakhi ezitshalweni ngokumunca izinhlayiya zamaminerali.
  • Ukuzala: inani lemisoco etholakala ezitshalweni.
  • pH: I-acidity, ukungathathi hlangothi noma i-alkalinity yomhlabathi. Kamuva sizobona ukuthi ungayishintsha kanjani i-pH yenhlabathi.

izakhiwo eziphilayo

Lapha singathola izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezihlala kuyo, okuhlanganisa amagciwane, isikhunta nezinye izilwane. Izilwane nazo zenza imisebenzi yazo phansi, kuye ngokudla kwazo, umsebenzi, ubukhulu, njll.

Izinhlobo zenhlabathi

andosol

Uhlobo lwedwala okuvela kulo umhlabathi, izici zokuma kwendawo, isimo sezulu, isimo sezulu, kanye nezinto eziphilayo ezihlala kuyo ziyizici ezinhlanu eziyinhloko ezinquma uhlobo lwenhlabathi.

Ngokusekelwe kulezi zinto ezakha umhlabathi, sisabalalisa lezi zinhlobo zenhlabathi emhlabeni wonke:

Umhlabathi onesihlabathi

Njengoba igama lisho, inhlabathi enesihlabathi yakhiwa ngokuyinhloko ngesihlabathi. Lolu hlobo lwesakhiwo, ngenxa ye-porosity ephezulu kanye nokuhlanganisa okuphansi, alugcini umswakama, okuhumushela kokuqukethwe kwayo okuphansi kwe-organic. Ngakho-ke, le nhlabathi ayilungile futhi ayifanele ukutshala kuyo.

i-limestone phansi

Le nhlabathi iqukethe isamba esikhulu sikasawoti we-calcium. Ngokuvamile zimhlophe, zomile futhi zomile. Uhlobo lwamatshe olugcwele kulenhlabathi yi-limestone. Imelana kakhulu kangangokuthi ayikuvumeli ezolimo ngoba izitshalo azimundi kahle umsoco.

Iphansi elimanzi

Le nhlabathi ibizwa nangokuthi inhlabathi emnyama ngoba inothile ngezinto eziphilayo ezibolayo, ezingcolisa umhlabathi. Imnyama ngombala futhi igcina amanzi amaningi, okwenza ilungele ukulima.

Clay

Lezi ziningi eziwubumba, ezicolekile, futhi ziphuzi ngombala. Lolu hlobo lwenhlabathi lugcina amanzi ngokwenza ama-puddles futhi lungalungela ukulima uma luhlanganiswe ne-humus.

indawo enamatshe

Njengoba igama laso libonisa, agcwele amadwala namatshe anobukhulu obuhlukahlukene. Njengoba ingenayo i-porosity eyanele noma i-permeability, ayigcini kahle umswakama. Ngakho-ke, ayilungele ezolimo.

phansi okuxubile

Ziyinhlabathi ephakathi kwesihlabathi nobumba, okungukuthi, izinhlobo ezimbili zenhlabathi.

Ungashintsha kanjani inhlabathi pH

Kwesinye isikhathi inhlabathi yethu ine-acidic kakhulu noma ine-alkaline ukusekela uhlaza kanye/noma izitshalo esifuna ukuzitshala.

Uma sifuna ukushintsha i-pH yenhlabathi ene-alkali ukuze ibe ne-asidi kakhudlwana, singasebenzisa lezi zindlela ezilandelayo:

  • Isulfure eyimpuphu: umphumela ongasheshi (izinyanga eziyisi-6 kuye kweziyi-8), kodwa usetshenziswa kakhulu ngoba ushibhile kakhulu. Faka u-150 kuya ku-250g/m2 bese uxuba nomhlabathi futhi ulinganise i-pH ngezikhathi ezithile.
  • I-Ferric sulfate: Inomphumela osheshayo kunesulfure, kodwa kuyadingeka ukukala i-pH ngoba singayehlisa ibe sezingeni elingadingekile. Umthamo wokwehlisa i-pH ngo-1 degree amagremu angu-4 e-ferric sulfate ilitha ngalinye lamanzi.
  • I-Golden Peat: I-pH yayo ine-acidic kakhulu (3,5). Kufanele silahle 10.000-30.000 kg/ha.
  • Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma sifuna ukushintsha i-pH yenhlabathi ene-asidi ukuze ibe ne-alkaline eyengeziwe, kufanele sisebenzise:
  • I-limestone yomhlabathi: Kufanele uwusakaze futhi uwuxube nomhlaba.
  • amanzi e-calcium: Kunconywa kakhulu ukuphakamisa i-pH kuphela emakhoneni amancane.

Kunoma yikuphi, kufanele silinganise i-pH, ngoba uma sikhula izitshalo ezine-acidic (i-maple yaseJapane, i-camellia, njll.) futhi siphakamise i-pH ngaphezu kwe-6, zizobonisa ngokushesha izimpawu ze-chlorosis yokuntuleka kwensimbi, isibonelo.

ukubaluleka komhlabathi

Umhlabathi ubaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni wonke futhi wehlisa isithunzi ngenxa yengcindezi engapheli abantu abayibeka phezu kwawo. Isekela izitshalo zomhlaba wonke, amasimu namahlathi futhi iyisisekelo sayo yonke imvelo yasemhlabeni.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, iphazamisa umjikelezo wamanzi kanye nomjikelezo wezakhi. Uguquko oluningi lwamandla nodaba ku-ecosystem lutholakala emhlabathini. Yilapho izitshalo ezimila khona nezilwane ezihambayo.

ukuthuthuka kwamadolobha kubaphuce umhlaba futhi baya ngokuya becekelwa phansi ukushiswa kwehlathi okuqhubekayo nokungcola. Ngenxa yokuthi inhlabathi ivuselela kancane kakhulu, kufanele ithathwe njengomthombo ongavuseleleki futhi oqhubeka uyindlala. Abantu abatholi ukudla kwabo okuningi hhayi nje emhlabathini kuphela, kodwa nasemiculweni, ngokhuni, nakwezinye izinto ezingavuthiwe.

Ekugcineni, ngenxa yobuningi bezitshalo, zisiza ukuthambisa isimo sezulu nokwenza kube lula ukuba khona kwemisinga yamanzi.

Ngethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezinhlobo ezahlukene zenhlabathi ekhona kanye nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.