Izingxenye zemakhroskophu

isibonakhulu

I-microscope iyithuluzi elisebenziseka kalula ngeso lenyama, kepha ngemininingwane eminingi ezokwenza umehluko. Zonke izingxenye nezinto ezibandakanyeka ekuphathweni kokukhanya nokwakhiwa kwesithombe esikhulisiwe zitholakala ohlelweni lwe-microscope ebonakalayo. Kuningi izingxenye zemicroscope lokho kufanele kuchazwe ukuze kuqondwe ngokuphelele ukusebenza.

Ngakho-ke, kule ndatshana sizokukhombisa ukuthi yiziphi izingxenye zemicroscope nezimpawu zayo eziyinhloko.

Izingxenye zesibonakhulu: uhlelo olubonakalayo

izingxenye zemicroscope

Uhlelo olubonakalayo luyingxenye ebaluleke kunazo zonke yesibonakhulu. Asikhulumi ngohlelo lokukhanyisa, nalo oluyi-optical system. Zihlukaniswe ukuthi zikwazi ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwezinto eziphethe ukukwazi ukuphambukisa noma ukuphatha ukukhanya nezinto ezisiza ekunikezeni ukwesekwa kwesakhiwo phakathi kwazo zonke izingxenye zensimbi. Zonke lezi zingxenye ziyizakhi zohlelo lokukhanda. Izakhi ezimbili eziyinhloko ezakha i-optical system ye-microscope yinhloso nocezu lwamehlo. Uhlelo lonke lokukhanyisa lubandakanya nezinye izingxenye ezifana ne- yizona okugxilwe kuzo, i-diaphragm, i-condenser kanye nama-prism optical.

Uma i-microscope inekhamera yedijithali, ibuye ibhekwe njengengxenye yohlelo lwe-optical. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izingxenye zesibonakhulu ngesinyathelo. Okokuqala inhloso. Kuyindlela yokuhlanya etholakala eduze kwesampula futhi yilokho okunikeza isithombe esikhulisiwe. Ukukhuliswa kwelensi kunenani elingaguquguquki futhi yilokho ubudlelwano phakathi kosayizi wesithombe nosayizi wangempela wento ositshele khona. Isibonelo: ake sicabange ukuthi sinesibonakhulu esethelwe ku-40x. Lokhu kusho ukuthi Isithombe esisibonayo sizoba sikhulu ngokuphindwe izikhathi ezingama-40 kunaleso sento esikhona isampula.

Isithombe esikhulisiwe saziwa njengesithombe sangempela. Ama-microscopes amaningi anezinhloso ezahlukahlukene ukuze kuzuzwe amazinga ahlukene wokukhulisa. Khumbula ukuthi ama-microscopes kufanele aguqulwe alingane nezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamasampula. Kuzoba namasampuli amakhulu namancane. Lokhu okwenza kudingeke ukulungisa inhloso.

Enye ipharamitha echaza inhloso yesibonakhulu ukuvulwa kwamanani. Le parameter ibaluleke kakhulu ngoba yiyo echaza isinqumo. Uma nje sinesinqumo esihle singabona isampula ngokucacile.

Izinhlobo zezinhloso

izinhlobo zamalensi

Ake sihlaziye ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinhloso ezingatholakala kwisibonakhulu:

  • Inhloso ye-Achromatic: Kuyinto elula kunazo zonke futhi isetshenziselwa ukulungisa ukuguquguquka okuyindilinga ngokuluhlaza okotshani nokuchromatic ngokuluhlaza nokubomvu.
  • Inhloso ye-Apochromatic: luhlobo lwelensi oluthuthuke kakhulu futhi lusiza ukulungisa ukuguquguquka kokuchromatic ngemibala emine. Kungasiza futhi ukulungisa ukuguquguquka okuyindilinga ngemibala emithathu.
  • I-target eyomile: Yilezo ezifinyelela ekukhuleni okulingene futhi zisetshenziswa kakhulu ngoba kulula kakhulu ukuzisebenzisa. Kuphela ukuthi zisetshenziswa kumalabhorethri emisebenzi yasenyuvesi.
  • Izinhloso zokutshalwa kwezimali: Zenzelwe ukuthi zikwazi ukufeza ukukhuliswa nokulungiswa okuphezulu ngezinga elikhulu. Banokuvuleka okuphezulu kwamanani kodwa kudingeka izindlela ezingeziwe zokukubeka phakathi kwesampula namalensi.

Izingxenye zemakhroskophu: into yokuqala

izingxenye zemicroscope ephelele

Ucezu lwamehlo iqoqo lamalensi esibuka ngalo isampula ngamehlo ethu. Lapha singabona ukukhuliswa kwesibili kwesithombe. Inhloso ikhiqiza kakhulu ukukhulisa futhi i-engela ileyo enikeza ubukhulu obukhulu kakhulu obungaba phakathi kuka-5x no-10x a. Masingakukhohlwa lokho lens ikhiqiza ukukhulisa okungu-20x, 40x, 100x. Futhi akufanele sikhohlwe ukuthi, lapho kukhuliswa kukhula, kuba nzima kakhulu ukuphatha ubukhali.

Isistimu ye-ocular lens inesibopho sokukhulisa isithombe nokulungisa okunye kokuphambuka okubonakalayo ngandlela thile. Okudumile kune-diaphragm ekhonza ukunciphisa ukubonakaliswa kokukhanya okuvela kuma-lens. Kunezinhlobo ezimbalwa ezahlukahlukene zezingqimba zamehlo. Okusetshenziswa kakhulu yizikefu zamehlo ezinhle nezintandokazi ezithandwayo ezingezinhle. Okuhle yilezo lapho ukukhanya kudlula khona kuqala ku-diaphragm bese kufinyelela kuma-lens. Izikhiya ezingezinhle yilezo lapho i-diaphragm itholakala khona phakathi kwamalensi amabili.

Umthombo wokukhanya ne-condenser

Ziyizingxenye ezimbili zesibonakhulu esithandeka kakhulu. Umthombo wokukhanya uyisici esibalulekile okufanele sibe nayo noma yisiphi isibonakhulu. Kubalulekile ukuze ikwazi ukukhipha ukukhanya okudingekayo ingakhanyisa isampula lethu. Ngokuya ngomthombo wokukhanya okhona kusibonakhulu, singakwazi ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwezinhlayiya zokukhanya ezithathelwanayo nezibonisi ezikhanyayo ezikhanyayo. Esokuqala yileso esinokuntuleka kokukhanya ngaphansi kwesiteji. Imizuzwana yileyo ekhanyisa isampula ebusweni bayo obungaphezulu.

Ama-microscopes ahlala esebenza ngebhalbhu le-incandescent elihlanganiswe nokwakheka. Kodwa-ke, sekuvele kuthuthukisiwe ngobuchwepheshe obusha njengoba bekunezinkinga ezithile. Okokuqala ukusetshenziswa kwamandla kwalawa ma-bulbs. Okwesibili kwakuyinani lokushisa ababekhipha, okwakwenza kube nzima ukugcina amasampuli esesimweni esihle. Masingakukhohlwa lokho Ukuhlolwa kufanele kwenziwe ngesampula isesimweni esihle ngaso sonke isikhathi.

Ngokuqondene ne-condenser, ingenye yezingxenye zemakroskophu ezakhiwe ngenhlanganisela yamalensi futhi eqondisa imisebe yokukhanya ekhishwe ngumthombo wokukhanya isiya kusampula. Itholakala phakathi kwesiteji nomthombo wokukhanya. Into ejwayelekile kakhulu ukuthi imisebe yokukhanya ilandela izindlela ezahlukahlukene. Ngakho-ke, i-condenser iba yinto ebalulekile ukukwazi ukuba nethonya elikhulu kwikhwalithi yesithombe esizoyithola.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezingxenye zemicroscope nokuthi yiziphi izici zayo eziyinhloko.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.