Imodeli ye-atomic Bohr

Bohr

Wake wayibona i- Imodeli ye-atomic Bohr. Lokhu kungukutholwa okubaluleke kakhulu okwenziwe ngusosayensi, ikakhulukazi i-electromagnetism kanye ne-electrochemistry. Phambilini bekukhona imodeli kaRutherford, ebiyizinguquko futhi inempumelelo enkulu, kepha kube khona ukungqubuzana neminye imithetho ye-athomu efana nekaMaxwell nekaNewton.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngemodeli ye-athomu kaBohr, kanye nemininingwane yayo ukucacisa noma yikuphi ukungabaza ngale ndaba.

Izinkinga ezisizile ukuzixazulula

Amazinga wamandla

Njengoba sishilo ekuqaleni kwendatshana, le modeli ye-athomu yasiza ekuxazululeni izingxabano ezithile ezazikhona neminye imithetho ye-athomu. Kumodeli yangaphambilini kaRutherford, bekufanele ama-electron ahamba ngecala elibi likagesi kwakudingeka akhiphe uhlobo lwemisebe kagesi kagesi. Lokhu kufanele kugcwaliswe ngenxa yemithetho ye-electromagnetism laphaya. Lokhu kulahleka kwamandla kudala ukuthi ama-electron ancishiswe aye emzileni wawo ngokuya ngasenkabeni. Kuthe uma befika esikhungweni baquleka, bashayisana nomongo.

Lokhu kudale inkinga ngombono ngoba ibingakwazi ukuwa ne-nucleus yama-athomu, kepha umkhondo wama-electron bekufanele wehluke. Lokhu kwaxazululwa ngemodeli ye-athomu ka-Bohr. Kuchaza lokho ama-electron azungeza i-nucleus ezindleleni ezithile ezivumelekile futhi ezinamandla athile. Amandla alingana nokuhlala njalo kukaPlanck.

Lezi zindlela esizibalulile lapho kuhamba khona ama-electron, zazibizwa ngezendlalelo zamandla noma amazinga wamandla. Lokho wukuthi, amandla anawo ama-electron awafani ngaso sonke isikhathi, kepha ayalinganiswa. Amazinga we-Quantum yimizila ehlukene okukhona kuyo ama-athomu. Ngokuya ngokuthi ikuyiphi i-orbit nganoma yisiphi isikhathi esithile, izoba namandla angaphezulu noma amancane. Imizila eseduze ne-nucleus ye-athomu inamandla amakhulu. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lapho besuka kude ne-nucleus, amandla ancipha.

Imodeli yezinga lamandla

Ama-electron azungeza

Le modeli ye-athomu ka-Bohr, eyayisho ukuthi ama-electron angathola noma alahlekelwe amandla kuphela ngokuziphonsa ukusuka komunye umzila uye komunye, kwasiza ekuxazululeni ukuwa okuphakanyiswe imodeli kaRutherford. Lapho usuka kwelinye izinga lamandla uye kwelinye, limunca noma likhiphe imisebe kagesi kagesi. Okusho ukuthi, lapho weqa usuka ezingeni lamandla elishajiswe kakhulu uye kwelincane, ukhipha amandla amaningi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lapho isuka ezingeni eliphansi lamandla iye kweliphezulu, imunca imisebe kagesi kagesi.

Njengoba le modeli ye-athomu ingukuguqulwa kwemodeli kaRutherford, izici ze-nucleus encane emaphakathi kanye nobukhulu be-athomu ziyagcinwa. Yize imizila yama-electron ingacaba njengaleyo yamaplanethi, kungashiwo ukuthi la ma-electron ajikeleza azungeze i-nucleus yawo ngendlela efanayo namaplanethi enza azungeze iLanga.

Izimiso zemodeli ye-athomu kaBohr

Imodeli ye-atomic Bohr

Manje sizohlaziya imigomo yale modeli ye-athomu. Imayelana nencazelo eningiliziwe yemodeli eshiwo nokusebenza kwayo.

  1. Izinhlayiyana ezinecala elihle Zisezingeni eliphansi uma kuqhathaniswa nomthamo ophelele we-athomu.
  2. Ama-electron anenkokhiso kagesi engemihle yilawo atholakala ejikeleza i-nucleus emizileni eyindilinga yamandla.
  3. Kunamazinga wamandla emizila lapho ama-electron ajikeleza khona. Futhi zinosayizi osethiwe, ngakho-ke asikho isimo esiphakathi phakathi kwamabhayisikili. Bavele basuke kwelinye izinga baye kwelinye.
  4. Amandla anawo umjikelezo ngamunye ahlobene nosayizi wawo. Ukuqhubeka komjikelezo kusuka ku-nucleus ye-athomu, iba namandla amaningi.
  5. Amazinga wamandla anezinombolo ezihlukile zama-electron. Ukwehla kwezinga lamandla, kuqukethe ama-electron ambalwa. Isibonelo, uma sisezingeni lokuqala, kuzoba nama-electron amabili. Ezingeni 2, kungafinyelela kuma-electron ayi-8, njalonjalo.
  6. Lapho ama-electron esuka komunye umzila aye kwenye, amunca noma akhiphe amandla kagesi kagesi. Uma usuka kwelinye izinga lamandla uye kwelinye, ukhipha amandla asele futhi okuphambene nalokho.

Le modeli yayiyizinguquko futhi yazama ukunikeza ukuzinza kokuqukethwe okwakungamamodeli wangaphambilini. Ukukhishwa okungaqondakali nokumuncwa kwamagesi kuchazwe ngale ndlela ye-athomu. Kwakuyimodeli yokuqala eyethula umqondo we-quantization noma i-quantization. Lokhu kwenza imodeli ye-athomu kaBohr imodeli ephakathi nendawo phakathi kwemishini yakudala nemishini ye-quantum. Yize futhi inamaphutha, bekuyimodeli eyandulelayo yemishini yakamuva ye-quantum kaSchrödinger nabanye ososayensi.

Imikhawulo namaphutha wemodeli ye-athomu ka-Bohr

I-athomu ephelele

Njengoba sishilo, le modeli inamaphutha athile namaphutha. Okokuqala, ayichazi noma inikeze izizathu zokuthi kungani ama-electron kufanele alinganiselwe kuphela ezindleleni ezithile. Kucabanga ngqo ukuthi ama-electron ane-radius eyaziwayo ne-orbit. Noma kunjalo, akunjalo. Eminyakeni eyishumi kamuva Isimiso sikaHeisenberg sokungaqiniseki sikuphikisile lokhu.

Yize le modeli ye-athomu ikwazile ukulingisa ukusebenza kwama-electron kuma-athomu e-hydrogen, bekungacaci kangako uma kukhulunywa ngezinto ezinenani eliphakeme lama-electron. Kuyisibonelo ukuthi unenkinga yokuchaza umphumela we-Zeeman. Lo mphumela yilokho okungabonakala lapho imigqa ye-spectral ihlukaniswe kabili noma ngaphezulu lapho kukhona amandla kazibuthe wangaphandle no-static.

Elinye lamaphutha nemikhawulo onayo le modeli ukuthi linikeza inani elingalungile lomfutho we-angular we-orbit state state. Wonke la maphutha nokulinganiselwa okukhulunyiwe kubangela ukuthi imodeli ye-athomu kaBohr yathathelwa indawo yimfundiso ye-quantum eminyakeni eyalandela.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngale ndatshana ungafunda kabanzi ngemodeli ye-athomu kaBohr kanye nezicelo zayo kwezesayensi.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.