Imodeli ye-athomu kaThomson

Thomson

Kwezesayensi kube nososayensi abaningi abenze umehluko maqondana nokwazi ukuthi izinto zisebenza kanjani. Ulwazi ngezinhlayiya, ama-athomu, nama-electron lunikeze intuthuko enkulu kwezesayensi. Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ku Imodeli ye-athomu kaThomson. Yayaziwa nangokuthi imodeli ye-Raisin Pudding.

Kulesi sihloko ungafunda konke okuhlobene nemodeli ye-athomu kaThomson, ukuthi yiziphi izici zayo nokuthi ibaluleke kangakanani kwisayensi.

Yini imodeli ye-athomu kaThomson

Ungayifunda kanjani imodeli ye-athomu kaThomson

Lesi yisibonelo esakhiwe ngo-1904 futhi kungenzeka ukuthi inhlayiya yokuqala ye-subatomic yatholakala. Owatholile kwakungusosayensi waseBrithani uJoseph John Thomson. Lo mlisa ukwazile ukuthola izinhlayiya ezikhokhiswe kabi ngesilingo lapho asebenzise khona amashubhu e-cathode ray ngo-1897.

Umphumela walokhu kutholakala wawumkhulu impela ngoba babungekho ubufakazi bokuthi i-athomu ingaba ne-nucleus. Lo sosayensi usiholela ekucabangeni ukuthi ama-electron acwiliswa ngohlobo lwezinto ezifakwe kahle eziphikisana nokushaja okungalungile kwama-electron. Lokhu yikho okwenza ama-athomu abe nenkokhelo yokungathathi hlangothi.

Ukubachaza ngendlela eqondakalayo kufana nokubeka ijeli ngezithelo zomvini ezintanta ngaphakathi. Ngakho-ke igama lemodeli pudding ngamagilebhisi omisiwe. Kule modeli, uThomson wayephethe ukubiza ama-electron corpuscle futhi abheke ukuthi ahlelwe ngendlela engahleliwe. Namuhla kuyaziwa ukuthi basesimweni samasongo ajikelezayo nokuthi iringi ngayinye inezinga elihlukile lamandla. Lapho i-electron ilahlekelwa amandla iya ezingeni eliphakeme, okungukuthi, isuka kude nenucleus ye-athomu.

Ukuhlolwa kwe-Gold foil

pudding omisiwe

Lokho uThompson ayekucabanga ukuthi ingxenye enhle ye-athomu ihlala ihleli unomphela. Le modeli ayidala ngo-1904 yayingenakwamukelwa kabanzi ezifundweni. Eminyakeni emihlanu kamuva uGiiger noMarsden bakwazi ukwenza ucwaningo ngopende lwegolide olwenza ukutholwa kukaThomson kungasebenzi. Kulesi silingo badlula ugongolo lwe-helium alpha izinhlayiya ngocingo lwegolide. Izinhlayiya ze-alfa zimane nje zingamabhubesi ento, okungukuthi, ama-nuclei angenawo ama-electron ngakho-ke anemali enhle.

Umphumela wokuhlolwa ukuthi lolu gongolo lwalusakazeka lapho ludlula ocingweni lwegolide. Ngalokhu, kungaphethwa ngokuthi bekufanele kube ne-nucleus enomthombo wokukhokhiswa okuhle obhekene nokuphambuka kwesibani sokukhanya. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kumodeli ye-athomu kaThomson sathola ukuthi inkokhelo enhle yasatshalaliswa kulokho okwakushiwo njenge-gelatin futhi eyayinama-electron. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ugongolo lwama-ion lungadlula nge-athomu laleyo modeli.

Lapho okukhonjisiwe kuboniswa ekuhlolweni okulandelayo, le modeli ingaphikwa i-athomu.

Ukutholakala kwe-electron nakho kwavela engxenyeni yenye imodeli ye-athomu kepha kwavela eDalton. Kuleyo modeli, i-athomu ibithathwa njengengahlukaniseki ngokuphelele. Yikho lokhu okwenze uThomson wacabanga ngemodeli yakhe yeRaisin Pudding.

Izici zemodeli ye-athomu kaThomson

imodeli ye-athomu ka-thomson

Phakathi kwezici eziyinhloko zalesi simodeli sifingqa lokhu okulandelayo:

  1. I-athomu emelelwa yile modeli ifana nomkhakha onokwaziswa okushajwe kahle ngama-electron ezikhokhiswa kabi. Womabili ama-electron nodaba olukhokhiswe kahle akhona ngaphakathi komkhakha.
  2. Izindleko ezinhle nezimbi azilingani ngobukhulu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi yonke i-athomu ayinayo imali ekhokhwayo, kepha ayithathi hlangothi ngogesi.
  3. Ukuze i-athomu lilonke likwazi ukukhokhiswa ngokungathathi hlangothi ama-electron adinga ukucwiliswa entweni enokushaja okuhle. Yilokho okushiwo ngamagilebhisi omisiwe njengengxenye yama-elektroni kanti yonke enye i-gelatin iyingxenye ekhokhiswayo enhle.
  4. Yize kungachazwanga ngendlela ecacile, kungabhekwa ukuthi kule modeli i-nucleus ye-athomu yayingekho.

Lapho uThomson enza le modeli, washiya umbono wangaphambilini mayelana ne-athomu ye-nebular. Lo mbono wawususelwa eqinisweni lokuthi ama-athomu ayakhiwa ama-vortices angabonakali. Ukuba ngusosayensi osezingeni eliphezulu wayefuna ukwenza imodeli yakhe ye-athomu ngokuya ngobufakazi bokuhlola obabaziwa ngesikhathi sakhe.

Ngaphandle kokuthi le modeli ibinganembile ngokuphelele, ibikwazi ukusiza ekubekeni izisekelo ezihleliwe ukuze amamodeli akamuva aphumelele kakhulu. Ngenxa yalesi simodeli, kungenzeka ukwenza ucwaningo oluhlukile oluholele eziphethweni ezintsha futhi yingakho isayensi esiyaziyo namuhla yathuthuka ngokwanda.

Imikhawulo namaphutha wemodeli ye-athomu kaThomson

Sizohlaziya ukuthi yiziphi izingqinamba lapho le modeli ingaphumelelanga khona nokuthi kungani ingakwazi ukuqhubeka. Into yokuqala ukuthi akakwazanga ukuchaza ukuthi amacala abanjwa kanjani kuma-electron angaphakathi kwe-athomu. Engakwazi ukukuchaza lokhu, futhi akakwazanga ukuxazulula noma yini mayelana nokuzinza kwe-athomu.

Emcabangweni wakhe akazange asho lutho nge-athomu ene-nucleus. Ukube namuhla besazi ukuthi i-athomu iqukethe i- i-nucleus eyakhiwe ngamaphrotoni nama-neutron nama-electron azungeza azungeze emazingeni ehlukene wamandla.

Ama-proton nama-neutron ayengeke esatholakala. UThompson uzame ukusungula imodeli yakhe encazelweni enezici ezazifakazelwe ngokwesayensi ngaleso sikhathi. Lapho ukuhlolwa kwegolide le-foil kuqinisekiswa, kwalahlwa ngokushesha. Kulesi silingo kukhonjisiwe ukuthi kufanele kube nokuthile ngaphakathi kwe-athomu okungayenza ibe nokushaja okuhle nobukhulu obukhulu. Lokhu sekuvele kwaziwa ukuthi yi-nucleus ye-athomu.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngemodeli ye-athomu kaThomson.


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