Intaba-mlilo yaseKrakatoa

i-krakatoa volcano

Uma sikhuluma ngegama leKrakatoa sibhekisa esiqhingini sentaba-mlilo esiseSunda Strait esifundazweni saseLampung, phakathi kweJava neSumatra, e-Indonesia. Yize ibizwa Intaba-mlilo yaseKrakatoa, yalesi siqhingi yayinezigaxa ezintathu zentaba-mlilo. Yaduma ngenhlekelele enkulu eyayibanga ngo-3 lapho ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kubhubhisa sonke isiqhingi kwathinta izifunda eziseduze kakhulu.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngemvelaphi, ukwakheka kanye nezici zentaba-mlilo yaseKrakatoa.

Izici eziyinhloko

ukuzalwa kwesiqhingi esisha

I-Indonesia yizwe elinentaba-mlilo kakhulu ngoba inezintaba-mlilo ezingaba ngu-130, ngaphezu kwanoma yiliphi elinye izwe emhlabeni. Ngakho-ke, akuvamile ukuthi abahlali babone ukuqhuma okuqhamuka njalo nokuqhuma kwamandla ahlukahlukene. Intaba-mlilo yaseKrakatoa iyi-stratovolcano, eyakhiwe ngodaka lwentaba-mlilo, umlotha, i-pumice, nezinye izinto zokwakha.

Lesi siqhingi singamakhilomitha ayi-9 ubude, amakhilomitha ama-5 ububanzi futhi sinendawo engamakhilomitha-skwele angama-28. ILakata eningizimu ingamamitha angu-813-820 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle; IPebu Atan enyakatho ingamamitha ayi-120 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle kanti iDanan enkabeni ingamamitha angama-445-450 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle.

Njengoba iKrakatoa iyi-stratovolcano futhi lolu hlobo lwentaba-mlilo luvame ukutholakala ngaphezu kwezindawo ezingaphansi kwe-subduction, itholakala kupuleti lase-Eurasia kanye ne-Indo-Australia plate. Indawo engaphansi kwe-subduction yindawo lapho kubhujiswa khona uqweqwe lwasolwandle ngoba imisinga ye-convection iyahlangana lapho. Ngenxa yalokho, ipuleti elilodwa le-tectonic licwila ngaphansi kwelinye.

Ngaphambi kokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo yango-1883, iKrakatoa yayiyingxenye yeqembu elincane leziqhingi eziseduze: iLang, iVenlaten, nesiqhingi sasePoolsche Hoed, kanye nezinye iziqhingi ezincane. Lezi yizo zonke izinsalela zokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo enkulu edlule, okwenzeke esikhathini esithile ku- isikhathi sangaphambi komlando futhi kwakheka intaba-mlilo ende noma ukucindezeleka phakathi kwawo. Izinsalela zokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo yasendulo zaqala ukuhlangana, kwathi ngemuva kweminyaka eminingi, ngenxa yomsebenzi wamacwecwe ama-tectonic, ama-cones ahlanganiswa ukwakha isiQhingi saseKrakatoa.

Ukuqhuma kwentabamlilo yaseKrakatoa

ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo i-krakatoa

Intaba-mlilo iKrakatoa yaziwa njengenye yezintaba-mlilo ezilimaza kakhulu emlandweni. Eqinisweni, izintaba-mlilo ezingamatshe ziboniswa ukuqhuma okuqhumayo ngoba udaka lwazo luqukethe inani elikhulu le-igneous andesite ne-dacite, elenza libukeke kakhulu futhi libangele ingcindezi yegesi ukuba ifinyelele emazingeni aphezulu kakhulu.

Awukho umlando ocacile wokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo endala kakhulu. Ngo-416 d. C., lokhu kushiwo embhalweni wesandla "iPararaton noma iNcwadi yamaKhosi" ngomlando wamakhosi ase-East Java. C. Kunokuqhuma okungakaqinisekiswa emlandweni. Mhlawumbe, ngo-AD 535. C. Ukuqhuma kwenzeka ezinyangeni ezimbalwa, okwaba nomthelela omkhulu esimweni sezulu saseNyakatho Nenkabazwe.

Kubonakala sengathi kwaba nokuqhuma okubili ngo-1681, okwabonwa kwaqoshwa kudayari yamatilosi aseDashi uJohn W. Vogel no-Elias Hesse. Eminyakeni eyalandela, umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo wawusashubile, kodwa-ke wehla futhi kwakungasabonakali kuyingozi kubantu bendawo. Ngisho nasekuqaleni kwawo-1880, intaba-mlilo yaseKrakatoa yathathwa njengengasekho ngoba ukuqhuma okukhulu kokugcina kwenzeka ngo-1681. Kodwa-ke, lesi simo sasizoshintsha.

NgoMeyi 20, 1883, uPerbuatan waqala ukukhipha uthuli nomlotha. Ngalolo suku ekuseni, ukaputeni womkhumbi waseJalimane u-Elizabeth wabika ukuthi ibone amafu angaba amakhilomitha ayi-9 kuya phezulu esiqhingini esingahlali muntu saseKrakatoa. Maphakathi noJuni, umgodi wasePerbuatan wacishe wabhujiswa. Umsebenzi awuzange ume, kodwa ngo-Agasti wathola isilinganiso esiyinhlekelele.

Cishe ngo-1 ntambama ngeSonto, ngo-Agasti 26, iKrakatoa yabhekana nokuqhuma kwayo kokuqala okukhulu, njengoba ukuqhuma okuyisimanga kwakha ifu lemfucumfucu leyoIkhuphuke ngamakhilomitha angama-25 ngaphezulu kwesiqhingi futhi yasakazekela enyakatho yaze yafinyelela okungenani amakhilomitha angama-36 ukuphakama. Okubi kakhulu kwenzeke ngosuku olulandelayo: ngenxa yengcindezi enqwabelene, kube nokuqhuma okungu-4 ekuseni, obe kucishe kuqhume lesi siqhingi. Ngo-Agasti 1883, kwaba nokuqhuma okune okwasicekela phansi ngokuphelele lesi siqhingi.

Umsindo okhiqizwayo uthathwe njengomsindo omkhulu kunayo yonke emlandweni futhi wephula izindlebe zabantu abasondele kakhulu endaweni. Lo msindo wezwakala cishe amakhilomitha angu-3.110 ukusuka ePerth, eNtshonalanga Australia naseMauritius. Ngenxa yokuqhuma kobudlova, kwenzeka i-tsunami, amagagasi afinyelela ebangeni elingamamitha angama-40 futhi aqhubekela ngasogwini olusentshonalanga yeSumatra, eNtshonalanga Java naseziqhingini eziseduze ngejubane cishe lamakhilomitha ayi-1.120 ngehora. Isibalo sabantu abadlulayo sidlule ku-36.000.

Uthuli negesi ekhishwe yintabamlilo yaseKrakatoa ngo-1883 yahlala emkhathini iminyaka engafika kwemithathu. Intaba-mlilo yanyamalala futhi kwakheka umgodi omusha, futhi kwaze kwaba ngo-3 lapho le ndawo yaqala khona ukubonisa izimpawu zomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo. Isiqhingi esisha sentaba-mlilo savela ngo-1927 kwathi kamuva sabizwa nge-Anak Krakatoa (indodana kaKrakatoa). Lesi siqhingi sikhula njengoba iminyaka ihamba.

Isimo sezulu, izimbali nezilwane

isiqhingi sentaba-mlilo

Lesi siqhingi sinesimo sezulu esifudumele nesinomswakama esinamazinga okushisa aphakathi kuka-26 ° no-27 ° Celsius. Ukuqhuma okukhulu kwaqeda yonke impilo endaweni futhi kwavela futhi ngo-1927 njengentaba-mlilo i-Anak Krakatoa. Kepha kukonke, kunezinhlobo ezingama-40.000 zezitshalo e-Indonesia, kufaka phakathi izihlahla ezingama-3.000 nama-orchid angama-5.000 XNUMX. Izindawo eziphansi ezisenyakatho zalesi sifunda ziphethwe yizimila ezingamahlathi emvula, kanti izindawo eziphansi eziseningizimu ziphethwe yim mangrove nezintende zesundu.

Izilwane zakhiwa izinhlobo ezivela ezindaweni ezishisayo zase-Afrika naseMelika, kepha isiqhingi ngasinye sinezinhlobo ezihlukile. Ama-orangutan angabonakala kuphela eSumatra naseBorneo; amahlosi eSumatra naseJava, inyathi nezindlovu eJava naseBorneo, kuphela i-tapir ne-siamang eSumatra.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, kunezintaba-mlilo ezimake impela ngaphambili nangemuva emlandweni. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-volcano yaseKrakatoa kanye nezici zayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.