I-Hipparchus yaseNicaea

I-Hipparchus yaseNicaea

Emhlabeni wesayensi kube nososayensi abaningi abaziwa ngeminikelo yabo emikhulu esize ukuthuthuka okukhulu. Namuhla sizokhuluma ngakho I-Hipparchus yaseNicaea. UngumGourmet ongumGreki nesazi sezibalo owayaziwa ngokuletha intuthuko eminingi kuwo womabili amagatsha esayensi. Kuningi okungaziwa ngempilo yakhe kodwa okuningi kuyaziwa ngamagalelo akhe.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi ngubani uHipparchus waseNicea nokuthi yini ayisebenzisayo emhlabeni wezinkanyezi nezibalo.

Umlando kaHipparchus waseNicea

I-Hipparchus yeminikelo yaseNicea

Lo muntu wazalelwa eNicea, eyiTurkey yamanje, ngonyaka we-190 BC Ngaleso sikhathi, kwakungekho miningi imininingwane eyaziwayo, ngakho-ke bambalwa abazi umlando wakhe weqiniso. Yonke imininingwane eqoqiwe kulo sosayensi kubonakala sengathi ikhombisa ukuthi ubesebenza edolobheni langakubo efunda isimo sezulu saminyaka yonke saleyo ndawo. Lolu hlobo lomsebenzi lwaluvamile kuzo zonke izazi zezinkanyezi ezingamaGreki zangaleso sikhathi. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi yayisetshenziselwa ukubala ukuqala nokuphela kwezikhathi zemvula neziphepho.

Phakathi kwempumelelo ebaluleke kakhulu kaHipparchus waseNicea siyathola ukunwetshwa kwekhathalogi yezinkanyezi nokubalwa kokutholwa kwama-equinox. Wayekwazi futhi ibanga eliphakathi komhlaba nenyanga noma wayengaba nguyise we-trigonometry. Inkinga ukuthi akukho okuningi okwaziwayo ngempilo yakhe. Abanye ababhali abanjengoPtolemy bashiye imizwa emihle ngocwaningo lukaHipparchus. Iningi lempilo yobungcweti yale ndoda yenzeka eRhodes.

Umsebenzi oyinhloko wasensimini kwakuyi-astronomy. Kule ndawo kwakuthathwa njengokunye okubaluleke kakhulu ngoba ngaleso sikhathi kwakungekho lutho olwalwaziwa ngendawo yasezulwini. Phakathi kokunye akuphumelele, uHipparchus waseNicea Wayengomunye wamaphayona ekwakheni imodeli yokulinganisa yokuhamba phakathi kwenyanga nelanga. Ngaphezu kwalokho, wenza izifundo eziningi ezikwazile ukuthola izilinganiso ezinembile. Lo sosayensi wasizakala ngamasu athile wezinkanyezi ayenziwe ososayensi bangaphambilini baseCaldea naseBabiloni. Ngenxa yalolu lwazi, ikhwalithi enhle yomsebenzi yafinyelelwa futhi okutholakele kwabo kwaba yisisekelo sophenyo lwakamuva olwenziwa ezinye izazi zezinkanyezi.

Iminikelo kaHipparchus waseNicea

Sizohlaziya ngokucophelela ukuthi yini okwaba negalelo kusayensi eyenza uHipparchus waseNicea waduma kangaka. Wayebhekwa njengomunye wososayensi ababaluleke kakhulu futhi ithonya lakhe laqhubeka amakhulu eminyaka. Ngaphandle kokubaluleka kwalo sosayensi, kuncane okwaziwayo ngempilo yakhe. Kuwo wonke umsebenzi awenzile, usasindile kuphela kuze kube namuhla omunye wabo owaziwa ngegama lika Amazwana ngo-Aratus no-Eudoxus.

Ngokunaka ukusweleka kofakazi emithonjeni eqondile efakazela ukuthi iminikelo yabo ibimangalisa, sizobheka imibhalo kaPtolemy noStrabo. Owokuqala, ikakhulukazi, wacaphuna kaningi uHipparchus ku-Almagest yakhe, incwadi enkulu yezinkanyezi eyabhalwa ngekhulu lesibili AD. Yize kungekho okuningi okwaziwayo ngempilo yakhe, kukhona abanye ababhali bokuphila kwabantu abakhomba ukuthi uHipparchus wakha indawo yokubheka izinkanyezi eRhodes lapho angathuthukisa khona ucwaningo lwakhe. Inkinga yokungazi okuningi ngayo ukuthi bekungaziwa ukuthi yiziphi izinsimbi azisebenzisayo ukuthuthukisa ucwaningo lwakhe. Lokhu kuyimininingwane eyisisekelo lapho kusungulwa imihlahlandlela eyasebenza njengesisekelo sezifundo zakamuva zezinye izinkanyezi.

Futhi, siyabona ukuthi uPtolemy waveza ukuthi uHipparchus wakhe i-theodolite ukuze ukwazi ukukala ama-engeli. Ngale ndlela wakwazi ukubala ibanga eliphakathi kwelanga nenyanga. Njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, enye yezindlela ezinhle kakhulu uHipparchus waseNicea akhunjulwa ngayo ukwenza ikhathalogi yokuqala yezinkanyezi. Ngaleso sikhathi, kwakungekho lwazi oluningi mayelana nezinkanyezi. Kodwa-ke, uHipparchus wathola inkanyezi entsha etholakala enkanyezini iScorpio.

Ukutholakala kokuthola inkanyezi entsha esibhakabhakeni kwamkhuthaza ngokwanele ukuba akhe ikhathalogi ebandakanya izinkanyezi ezingaba ngu-850 ezaziwa ngaleso sikhathi. Zonke izinkanyezi ezikule khathalogi Bahlukaniswa ngokokukhanya kwabo ngokusho kohlelo lobukhulu obungu-6. Le ndlela ifana kakhulu naleyo esetshenziswe namuhla ukuhlukanisa izinkanyezi. Wakha nembulunga yasezulwini eyayikhombisa izinkanyezi nezinkanyezi.

Ngeshwa, eminyakeni edlule, ikhathalogi yokuqala ayizange igcinwe. Konke okwaziwayo ngalo msebenzi kuvela emsebenzini kaPtolemy, owasebenzisa izifundo zakhe njengesisekelo sokwenza ikhathalogi yakhe eyaziwa nge-Almagest. Ngokusho kochwepheshe, uPtolemy wayephethe kuphela ukukopisha lokho uHipparchus akuthola futhi wakwazi ukukwandisa ngokutholwa kwakhe.

Ukudluliswa kwama-equinox

Enye yezenzo zikaHipparchus waseNicaea kwakuwukutholwa kwama-equinox. Le nhlangano ichazwa njengokuhamba kwama-equinoxes eduze kwe-ecliptic okugqugquzelwa ithuba lokujikeleza le-axis yokujikeleza komhlaba. Ngenkathi uHipparchus ehlanganisa ikhathalogi yakhe yezinkanyezi, wabona ukuthi ezinye izinkanyezi ziyahamba uma kuqhathaniswa nezilinganiso zangaphambilini. Leli qiniso limenze wacabanga ukuthi ngabe yizinkanyezi ezihambayo noma umhlaba oshintshe ukuma kwawo. Lokhu kucabanga kwamholela ekusunguleni inhlangano eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-precession. Lokhu kunyakaza kuphathwa kabanzi njengohlobo lokuxega okujikelezayo okuthinta ukuma kwe-axis yomhlaba yokujikeleza. Umjikelezo ngamunye uneminyaka engama-25.772.

Ngemuva kokuhamba kokujikeleza nokuhunyushwa komhlaba, i-precession kwaba ukunyakaza kwesithathu okutholakele. Imbangela yalokhu kuhamba kungumphumela wamandla adonsela phansi phakathi kwelanga nenyanga emhlabeni. La mandla adonsela phansi athinta inkaba yenkabazwe yomhlaba.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoHipparchus waseNicea neminikelo yakhe kwezesayensi.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.