Umphumela wokushisa

Ukukhishwa kwamagesi abamba ukushisa

Umphumela wokushisa Yinto cishe wonke umuntu ezwile ngayo namuhla. Abaningi bathi umphumela wokubamba ukushisa ukwanda kwamazinga okushisa omhlaba futhi kwandisa imiphumela yokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Kuhlobene futhi nokufudumala kwembulunga yonke. Kepha bayazi yini ngempela iqhaza lomphumela wokushisa kwendlu, ukuthi kwenzeka kanjani nokuthi unamiphi imiphumela emhlabeni?

Ngaphambi kokuchaza ukuthi uthini umphumela wokushisa kwendlu, ngizokwenza isitatimende ukuze ufunde lokhu ngokubaluleka okufanele kube nakho: "Ngaphandle komthelela wokubamba ukushisa, impilo ibingeke ibe khona namuhla njengoba sazi ngoba bekungeke kwenzeke". Lokho kushiwo, ngiyethemba kunokubaluleka okukufanele.

Incazelo Yomphumela Wokushisa Okushisa

Okubizwa nge- "greenhouse effect" kuqukethe ukukhula kwezinga lokushisa kweplanethi kubangelwe ukwenziwa kweqembu elithile lamagesi, amanye awo akhiqizwa ngobuningi ngumuntu, amunca imisebe ye-infrared, edala ukuthi umhlaba kanye nengxenye engezansi yesendlalelo sasemkhathini ezungezile kushise. Kungenxa yalomphumela wokushisa okushisayo ukuthi impilo eMhlabeni kungenzeka, ngoba, ngaphandle kwalokho, amazinga okushisa aphakathi nendawo angaba ngama-degree angama -88.

Umphumela wokushisa

Ayini amagesi abamba ukushisa?

Amagesi abizwa ngokuthi yi-greenhouse gases noma ama-greenhouse gases, anesibopho somphumela ochazwe ngenhla, yi:

  • Umhwamuko wamanzi (H2O)
  • I-Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • I-Methane (CH4)
  • Ama-nitrogen oxides (NOx)
  • I-Ozone (O3)
  • AmaChlorofluorocarbons (CFCartificial)

Yize onke (ngaphandle kwama-CFC) engokwemvelo, kusukela ngeNguquko Yezimboni futhi ikakhulukazi ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kakhulu kwamafutha ezimbiwa emisebenzini yezimboni nakwezokuhamba, kube nokwenyuka okukhulu kwamanani akhishwe emkhathini. Izici zala magesi abamba ukushisa ukuthi gcina ukushisaNgakho-ke, lapho ukuphakama kwala magesi emkhathini kuphakama, ukushisa okuncane kungaphuma.

Yonke into ibhebhethekiswa ubukhona beminye imisebenzi yabantu, njengokugawulwa kwamahlathi, okunciphise amandla okuvuselela omkhathi ukuqeda isikhutha, okuyimbangela enkulu yomphumela wokushisa okushisa ngoba iyona ekhishwa kakhulu namuhla.

Umhwamuko wamanzi

Umhwamuko wamanzi (H2O) ngu umnikeli omkhulu kunabo bonke emvelweni wokushisa kwendalo futhi yiyona exhunyaniswe ngqo nesimo sezulu, ngakho-ke, ilawulwa ngokuqondile imisebenzi yabantu. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ukuhwamuka kuxhomeke kakhulu ekushiseni komhlaba (okungashintshi neze okwenziwa ngumuntu, uma sibheka izindawo ezinkulu), nangenxa yokuthi umhwamuko wamanzi udlula emkhathini ngemijikelezo eshesha kakhulu, ehlala isikhathi ngasinye. isigamu sinye njalo ezinsukwini eziyisishiyagalombili kuya kweziyisishiyagalolunye.

Isikhutha

ICarbon dioxide (CO2) isiza uMhlaba ukuthi ube nokushisa okuhlala kuwo, inqobo nje uma ukuhlushwa kwawo kuhlala ngaphakathi kwebanga elithile. Ngaphandle kwe-carbon dioxide, uMhlaba ubungaba yiqhwa, kepha ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukweqisa kuvimbela ukuphuma kokushisa emkhathini futhi kubangele ukufudumala ngokweqile kweplanethi. Kusuka kuyo yomibili imithombo yemvelo (ukuphefumula, ukubola kwezinto eziphilayo, imililo yehlathi lemvelo) kanye ne-anthropogenic (ukushiswa kwamafutha ezimbiwa, ushintsho ekusetshenzisweni komhlaba (ikakhulukazi ukugawulwa kwamahlathi), ukushiswa kwe-biomass, imisebenzi yezimboni, njll.

I-athikili ehlobene:
I-NASA idala ividiyo ekhombisa isikhutha seplanethi

IMethane

Kuyinto eyenzeka ngesimo segesi emazingeni okushisa ajwayelekile kanye nezingcindezi. Ayinambala futhi ayincibiliki neze emanzini esigabeni sayo soketshezi. Ama-60% wokukhishwa kwawo emhlabeni wonke inemvelaphi ye-anthropogenic, ikakhulukazi evela emisebenzini yezolimo nakweminye imisebenzi yabantu. Yize futhi kuvela ekuhlukeni kukadoti wemvelo, imithombo yemvelo, ukukhishwa kwamafutha ezimbiwa, njll. Ezimweni lapho kungekho-oxygen.

Ukukhishwa kweMethane

Ama-nitrogen oxide

Ama-nitrogen oxides (NOX) angamagesi we-nitrogen ne-oxygen akhiwa kwifomu le- ukushisa oksijini okweqile namazinga okushisa aphezulu. Zikhishelwa emoyeni kusuka ekuqothulweni kwezimoto (ikakhulukazi idizili nokushisa okushisayo), kusuka ekushiseni kwamalahle, uwoyela, noma igesi yemvelo, futhi ngesikhathi sezinqubo ezifana nokushisela i-arc, i-electroplating, i-metal etching, ne-dynamite detonation. .

Ozone

I-Ozone (O3), lapho kushisa kakhulu futhi kuyingcindezi, igesi engenambala futhi enephunga elibi, okungathi lapho inani elikhulu likwazi ukuba luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Impahla yayo eyinhloko ukuthi i-oxidant enamandla kakhulu, yaziwa kakhulu ngendima ebalulekile eyidlalayo emkhathini. I-ozone yeStratospheric isebenza njengesihlungi esithi ayikuvumeli kudlule imisebe eyingozi ye-UV ebusweni bomhlaba. Kodwa-ke, uma i-ozone ikhona engxenyeni ephansi kakhulu yomkhathi (i-troposphere), ingadala, ngokuhlunga okwanele, ukulimala kohlaza.

Imbobo yesendlalelo se-ozone

Ama-CFC

Ama-chlorofluorocarbon, awaziwa nangokuthi ama-CFC, atholakala kuma-hydrocarbon futhi, ngenxa yokuqina kwawo okuphezulu kwamakhemikhali omzimba, asetshenziswe kabanzi njengezipholisi, izinto zokucima kanye ne-propellants yama-aerosols. Ukwenziwa nokusetshenziswa kwama-chlorofluorocarbon kwakungavunyelwe yi- Iphrothokholi yaseMontreal, ngoba bahlasela ungqimba lwe-ozone ngokusebenzisa i-photochemical reaction. Ithani elilodwa lama-CFC lizokhiqiza umthelela wokufudumala kwembulunga yonke eminyakeni eyikhulu kulandela ukuphuma kwalo emkhathini okulingana nezikhathi ezingama-4000 inani elifanayo lesikhutha (i-CO2).

Imiphumela yomphumela wokwanda kokushisa kokushisa

Njengoba sesibonile, umthelela wokushisa okushisayo akuyona "embi" kule filimu, kodwa ukwanda kwayo okuqhubekayo. Njengoba imisebenzi yabantu yanda, sibona ukuthi ukukhiqizwa kwegesi ebamba ukushisa kukhula kanjani nokuthi isikhathi ngasinye kanjani khulisa okuningi amazinga okushisa aphakathi komhlaba. Lokhu kungaba nemiphumela emibi kakhulu emvelweni nakubantu nasendleleni yabo yokuphila

Imiphumela engabangelwa umphumela wokushisa okushisayo yilena:

  • Ukwanda kokushisa okujwayelekile kweplanethi.
  • Ukwanda kwesomiso kwezinye izindawo nezikhukhula kwezinye.
  • Imvamisa ephakeme yokwakheka kwesiphepho.
  • Ukuncibilika okuqhubekayo kwamakepisi asezindaweni eziphakeme, ngokukhuphuka kwamazinga olwandle.
  • Ukwanda kwezulu ezingeni lamaplanethi (kuzokuna izinsuku ezimbalwa nokuningi ngamandla).
  • Khulisa inani lezinsuku ezishisayo, ezihunyushwe kumaza okushisa.
  • Ukubhujiswa kwemvelo.

Nabasanda kusayina Isivumelwano saseParis Amazwe asayigunyazile ahlose ukunciphisa ukukhishwa kwegesi ebamba ukushisa emkhathini, ukuze asize ukunciphisa imiphumela emibi yokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Umphakathi wezesayensi wenze izifundo eziningana lapho kuphethwa khona ukuthi uma amazinga okushisa aphakathi komhlaba ekhuphuka ngaphezu kwama-degree Celsius amabili, imiphumela ingahlehli. Kungakho sebebeke ukugxila okuphezulu kwe-CO2 emhlabeni ngo-400 ppm. Kuze kube manje, lokhu kuhlushwa sekwedlule iminyaka emibili ilandelana.

Imiphumela emibi yamagesi abamba ukushisa kubantu

I-NO2 ingadala imiphumela empilweni nasenhlalakahleni yabantu, idale ukucasuka kumucu wamakhala futhi ilimaze uhlelo lokuphefumula ngokungena ezindaweni ezijulile zamaphaphu, nangokunikela ekwakheni imvula eneasidi.

Ngokwengxenye yayo, i-SO2 iphendula ngamanzi asemkhathini ukukhiqiza imvula ene-asidi, icasule amafinyila namehlo futhi ibangele ukukhwehlela lapho ihogela. Imvula ene-acid nayo ingaba nemiphumela engaqondile kwezempilo, ngoba amanzi ane-acidified angancibilika izinsimbi nezinto ezinobuthi ezivela enhlabathini, emadwaleni, emiseleni nasemapayipini bese ekuhambisa kamuva ezinhlelweni zamanzi okuphuza ukuze zisetshenziswe ngabantu, zikhiqize ukudakwa.

Imvula ye-asidi

Umphumela oyinhloko wala magesi emvelweni yemvelo yimvula ene-asidi. Isimo semvula ene-asidi (kufaka phakathi iqhwa, inkungu namazolo ane-asidi) kunemiphumela emibi emvelweni, ngoba ayithinti kuphela ikhwalithi yamanzi, kodwa nenhlabathi, imvelo futhi, ikakhulukazi ezimileni. Omunye umphumela wemvula ene-asidi ukwanda kwe- ubumuncu bamanzi ahlanzekile futhi ngenxa yalokho ukwanda kwezinsimbi ezisindayo ezinobuthi obudala ukugqashuka kwamaketanga e-trophic kanye nenqubo yokuzala yezinhlanzi, okulahla imifula namachibi ekwehleni okuncane kodwa okungenakwenzeka kwezilwane zabo.

Imvula ene-acid nayo iba nemiphumela emibi ngaphakathi kwendawo yasemadolobheni, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukubola kwezakhiwo, ukonakala kwamatshe ababhishobhi nezinye izikhumbuzo zomlando, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuthanda kohlelo lokuphefumula kubantu, osekuvele kushiwo .

I-athikili ehlobene:
Yini imvula eneasidi?

imvula eneasidi

Intuthu yamakhemikhali

Omunye umphumela wamagesi e-acid into eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-smog; okuyi-Anglicism eyakhiwe kusukela ekuhlanganyeleni kwamagama athi intuthu (intuthu) nenkungu (inkungu) uhlobo lokungcola komoya okuvela ekufakweni kwentuthu enkungwini (kusuka kwesinye i-aerosol kuya kwesinye i-aerosol). Intuthu empunga noma intuthu yezimboni ukungcola komoya okukhiqizwa yi umusi nesibabule. Umthombo oyinhloko womoya ongcolisayo onikela ekuphefumuleni okumpunga ukushiswa kwamalahle, okungaba nesibabule esikhulu. Kukhona intuthu eyenziwe ngamakhemikhali evela ezintweni eziqukethe intuthu yomlilo we-nitrogen nemoto, exutshwe yimiphumela yemisebe yelanga ekhiqiza igesi ye-ozone, enobuthi obukhulu.

Intuthu yamakhemikhali, ukungcoliswa komoya

Yini esingayenza ukunciphisa umphumela wokushisa?

Ukukhishwa kwamagesi kufanele kulawulwe ezikalini ezimbili ezihlukene, kuya ngokuthi ngabe kubhekisa ekuqhumeni ezimotweni noma embonini ngokubanzi.

Izinjini zamaloli nezimoto zingumthombo obaluleke kakhulu walezi zingcolisi. Ukwehlisa ukukhishwa, kuhle ukusebenzisa izindlela zokuvikela nokuhlanza amagesi akhishwa yinjini ngaphambi kokuthi adedelwe angene emkhathini. Ungafaka isandla ekwehliseni umphumela wokushisa okushisayo ngalezi zinyathelo ezilandelayo:

  • Sebenzisa izithuthi zomphakathi eziningi, ukuhamba ngebhayisikili noma ukuhamba ngezinyawo.
  • Sebenzisa izinjini ezinobuchwepheshe obungcolisa kakhulu, isibonelo, izinjini ezifaka izibaseli zamanje ngamafutha angcolisayo amancane, isibonelo, igesi yemvelo, i-alcohol, i-hydrogen noma ugesi.
  • Thuthukisa ukusebenza kahle kwezinjini ukuze kwenziwe amakhilomitha amaningi ngamalitha kaphethiloli ambalwa
  • Shintsha injini ukuze kunciphe ukukhishwa kwayo.
  • Khulisa amanani nezintela okufanele zingakhokhwa yizimoto ezingcolisa kakhulu futhi zikhuthaze ushintsho lwazo ezintsha. Lokhu kuzokhuthaza abenzi bezimoto ukuthi banciphise ukungcola futhi bakhuthaze abathengi ukuthi bathenge izimoto ezihlanzayo.
  • Dala izindawo zabahamba ngezinyawo ezindaweni ezisemadolobheni futhi, ngokujwayelekile, unqande ukusakazwa kwezimoto ezizimele kwezinye izindawo zamadolobha.
Izithuthi zomphakathi ukulwa nokwanda komphumela wokushisa

Sebenzisa izithuthi zomphakathi eziningi

Ngalokhu ungafunda kabanzi ngalo mphumela osigcina siphila kodwa futhi kubalulekile ukuwugcina usesilinganisweni esizinzile esanele ukuze ukwanda kwawo kungabangeli izinhlekelele zesimo sezulu.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Roberto kusho

    Lo mbhalo uthakazelisa kakhulu, ngiyakuhalalisela