Kuyini futhi kwakhiwa kanjani ama-guyots?

Guyot olwandle

Ngesikhathi sokunwetshwa kolwandle, amanye amafomu angaphansi kwamanzi akhiqizwa. Njengoba sibonile kokunye okuthunyelwe mayelana nemifula yolwandle, kuyizintaba ezingaphansi kwamanzi. Kulokhu sizokhuluma ngakho abafana. Lezi zakhiwo zokwakheka komhlaba zichazwe ngenxa yombono wokwandiswa kolwandle.

Ngabe ufuna ukwazi ukuthi yini ama-guyots futhi iyini inqubo yokwakheka komhlaba akhiwa ngayo?

Incazelo yama-guyots

ukuqeqeshwa kwamagugu

Olwandle kunezindlela eziningi zokwakheka komhlaba ezakhiwe eminyakeni edlule. Kumele sikhumbule ukuthi lezi zakhiwo zinesikhathi sazo sokuma komhlaba. Lokho ukusho ukuthi, akwanele ukuthi kudlule amashumi eminyaka noma ikhulu leminyaka, kodwa izigidi zeminyaka. Lapho ososayensi beqala ukuphenya ulwandle, babona ukwakheka okuthile okunelukuluku. Imayelana nama-guyots. Ziyi-seamounts ophahla lwayo luyisicaba. Lokhu kwakhiwa okungajwayelekile kuvela kuzo zonke izisekelo zolwandle.

Ososayensi bebelokhu bezama ukuchaza ukwakheka kwama-guyots nophahla lwayo oluyisicaba. Bafinyelele esiphethweni sokuthi, eminyakeni edlule, amandla emisinga yolwandle abelokhu eyicaba. Ngaphakathi kwezilwandle nolwandle kukhona nokuguguleka. Akuyona inhlobo efanayo yokuguguleka komhlaba okungahle kube khona ebusweni bomhlaba, imifula namachibi, kepha kusebenza ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

AmaGuyots anomsuka wentaba-mlilo futhi abonwe ekujuleni okungafika kumamitha ayi-4000.

UHarry hammond hess

UHarry hammond hess

Incazelo eveza ukwakheka kwale mibono yanikezwa ngusosayensi uHarry Hammond Hess. Lo sosayensi waziwa njengomunye we obaba abasungula umbono weplate tectonics. Yonke imfundiso yokuzikhulisa kolwandle kungenxa yalo sosayensi. Wazalwa ngoMeyi 1906 futhi wakwazi ukuchaza ubudlelwano obuphakathi kwamakhothamo esiqhingi, ukungezwani kwamandla adonsela phansi olwandle, kanye ne-serpentine peridotite, kanye nesiphakamiso sokuthi ukuhanjiswa kwengubo yomhlaba yikhona okwakushukumisa le nqubo.

Ngama-XNUMX wayesethole amarekhodi amaningi olwandle. Njengoba wayenokuningi kokufunda, wakwazi ukuveza ngokuhlelekile uchungechunge lwamaphethini abonakalayo angahle afaniswe nemivimbo yedube. Kwakuwukuhlelwa kwamagnetic kwamadwala njengomsebenzi wensimu kazibuthe Yomhlaba. Njengoba le nsimu kazibuthe iyashintsha, wakwazi ukubona ukuthi amanye amadwala ahlelwa kanjani ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene kulawo elinye iqembu lomculo. Lokhu kwamenza wacabanga ukuthi ulwandle lwalukhula.

Ngenxa yale mpumelelo eyenziwe nguHess, umbono wama-plate tectonics ungakhiwa kamuva ngo-1968.

Kwakhiwa kanjani?

UHess unikeze incazelo ekwakhiweni kwama-guyots. Ukuba khona kwayo kungenxa yomsebenzi wezintaba-mlilo ezisogwini lolwandle. Lapho intabamlilo isebenza isikhashana, ishiya izinto ezinkulu ngokwanele ukwakha i-guyot.

Iphansi lolwandle liyakhula futhi lishiye lezi zakhiwo njengoba intaba-mlilo isasebenza futhi isuka kude ne-eksisi yokhalo. Lapho intaba-mlilo isuka emmangweni, umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo uyaphela bese uyaphola. Inhlama iyaqina futhi iyacwila. I-guyot iyacwila nezinye izinto ezisetshenzisiwe, kepha ihamba ngezindawo lapho isenzo samaza namagagasi olwandle aqeda khona ingqungquthela ashiye ipulatifomu likhona. PZingatholakala kuze kufike kumamitha ayi-4000 ukujula.

I-Guyots hypothesis

I-hypothesis yokwakheka kwama-guyots ingaqinisekiswa. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi izinsalela zemivubukulo yezilwane ze-benthic ezihlala ezinzulwini zatholakala. Atholakele AmaGuyots e-Afar Triangle, ebingaphansi kolwandle, ngesikhathi esithile icwilisiwe.

Njengoba izinga lokuqongelela koqweqwe emaphethelweni lingaguquguquki, kunokuhlukahluka okubalulekile. Kukhona ama-guyots anobude obuhlukile nendiza yawo ye-eksisi yokujikeleza. Amakhona ama-guyots akhula kancane kunamanye.

Ukwahlukahluka kwalezi zakhiwo kungatholakala kolunye uhlangothi nakolunye ugebhezi. Ngokwesibonelo, ipuleti lase-Afrika likhula ngo-1,3 cm ngonyaka, kuyilapho iNyakatho Melika ingu-0,8 cm kuphela. Lokhu kubangela ukuthi ama-guyots akha amapuleti ahlukene athathe izakhiwo ezahlukene. Lokho abafana ngakho konke ukuthi uphahla lucwecwe isenzo sokuqhuma kolwandle.

Uma uphahla lwentaba-mlilo luhlala isikhathi eside ngokwenzeka kwamagagasi, luzoba ngenye indlela kunangesikhathi esincane. Lesi sikhathi sincike esivinini lapho ipuleti lezwekazi lihamba khona lapho kwakhiwa khona i-guyot. Kungashiwo ukuthi izintaba-mlilo ezingasebenzi, eziguguliwe nezindala ezihlala "njengezikhumbuzo" ezincane zolwandle. Ngaphezu kwalokho, banikela ngolwazi olukhulu mayelana nobudala bamatshe nokwakheka nokwakhiwa kolwandle kusuka ezigidini zeminyaka eyedlule.

UGuyot Yantarnaya

yantarnaya guyot

 

I-Yantarnaya guyot yaziwa futhi ngegama lika-guyot Amber ekuhumusheni kwesiNgisi. Ingenye yezindawo ezinkulu kunazo zonke olwandle. Itholakala oLwandlekazi iPacific futhi ingeyeSala y Gómez Submarine Range. Indawo yayo icishe ibe yi-150 km entshonalanga ye-Zasosov Seamount.

Ukutholakala kwayo kufinyelelwe ngezinye izici zokwakheka komhlaba ezakha ukukhululeka kwentaba yeSala y Gómez. Kutholwe ngophenyo lwezokudoba nolwandle lwaseSoviet Union. Leli qembu lososayensi lenze ukuhambela okuningana endaweni ethile kuze kube yilapho umkhumbi we-18 wemikhumbi yesayensi uSolwazi Shtokman ethola i-guyot Yantarnaya phakathi kwezinyanga zikaMashi noJuni 1987.

Singahlangana futhi ne-Anakena Seamount. Kuyinto evelele yokukhululeka kolwandle olwandle iPacific Ocean, oluqhamuka ngaphakathi kwe-Anakena Submarine Mountain Range, endaweni eseduze ne-Eastern Pacific Ridge, endaweni ebizwa nangokuthi "Rano Rahi Seamount Field".

Njengoba nje kunezintaba ezidume kakhudlwana ekusizweni kobuso bomhlaba, kukhona nasensimini yasolwandle. Ngalolu lwazi uzokwazi kangcono ukwazi konke okuphathelene nama-guyots nokuqeqeshwa kwabo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.