Ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu kusongela ukuqeda imithombo yethu yamanzi

Ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu kusongela imithombo yethu yamanzi

Njengoba sibonile ezindatshaneni ezedlule, ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kwandisa imvamisa nokuqina kwemicimbi yezulu eyeqile njengesomiso. Isomiso eside nesishubile sisongela ukuqeda izindawo zethu zokugcina amanzi futhi lokhu kusibeka engozini.

Kokubili ukusetshenziselwa izimboni, njengezolimo nokusetshenziswa kwabantu nokunikezwa, amanzi abaluleke kakhulu futhi ayinsiza ebalulekile. Noma kunjalo, imithelela yokuguquka kwesimo sezulu emadamini aseSpain ingaba nkulu kunaleyo ecatshangwe ezinhlelweni ze-Hydrological Plans, ngokocwaningo olwenziwe ngabaphenyi abavela ePolytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) okuyi-Institute of Water and Environment Engineering (IIAMA).

Ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu kuyithinta kanjani imithombo yamanzi?

Imithombo yamanzi yaseSpain iyaphela

Lapho isomiso sinciphisa imvula yaminyaka yonke, imithombo yamanzi iyehla ngemuva kokusetshenziswa nokusetshenziswa kwayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kulokhu kufanele sengeze ukuthi ukwanda kwamazinga okushisa unyaka wonke kwandisa inani lamanzi agciniwe ayahwamuka futhi angasasebenzi. Lezi zici azicatshangelwa kahle ezinhlelweni eziningi zamanzi eSpain.

Ucwaningo ngemithelela yokuguquka kwesimo sezulu ezinhlelweni zamanzi lusungulwe nguPatricia Marcos futhi selushicilelwe ephephabhukwini lesayensi Ingeniería del Agua. Lolu cwaningo lugcizelela ukulinganiselwa kwendlela enikezwe eSpain ukuze ikwazi ukuhlanganisa yonke imiphumela yokuguquka kwesimo sezulu ngaphakathi kokuhlelwa kwe-hydrological.

Kucwaningo bathola iziphetho ezibonisa ukuthi ukuphathwa kwamanzi eSpain kubheka kuphela ukwehliswa kokufakwa kwamanzi kusuka emvuleni futhi akubheki ukwehluka kwendawo ngaphakathi komkhawulo ofanayo wamanzi. Lokho kusho ukuthi, imithelela yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu ayiyiqondi imingcele ye-hydrological eyenziwe ngabantu, kepha kuthinta isandiso sonke ngokulinganayo. Uhlelo lwe-hydrological lomphakathi ozimele lungabheka ezinye izici bese elinye icebo licabangisisa ngezinye, kepha, nokho, ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu kunemithelela ngokulinganayo.

Imithombo yamanzi yaseSpain isengozini

isomiso emadanyini

Ucwaningo luhlolisise umthelela wokuguquka kwesimo sezulu emithonjeni yamanzi yohlelo lokuxhashazwa komfula iJúcar, kubhekelelwa izimo zakamuva zokuguquka kwesimo sezulu nokuqhathanisa imiphumela yezinhlobo ezintathu zemiqondo ye-hydrological. Kubuye kwabonwa nokuthi imithombo yamanzi yehliswe kanjani esikhathini esifushane nesiphakathi nokuthi izophinde inciphiswe kanjani. Imithombo yamanzi kulindeleke ukuthi Zizokwehla ngo-12%, kepha ucwaningo lilinganisela ukwehliswa kuka-20-21% esikhathini esifushane kanye no-29-36% esikhathini esiphakathi.

Lokhu kwehliswa kwemithombo yamanzi akucatshangwa ezinhlelweni zesomiso zemiphakathi ezimele. Empeleni, kutholakele ukuthi kule minyaka edlule sekube khona ukwehliswa okufana nalokho okusetshenziswe kuHlelo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuhlaziywa kuthole ukungaqiniseki okuphezulu maqondana nephesenti lokuncipha komthombo, elisuselwa kumamodeli wesimo sezulu futhi, ngezinga elincane, kusuka kumamodeli we-hydrological.

Ukunqunywa kwephesenti lokwehliswa kwemithombo yamanzi akugcini nje ngokuya ngemithelela yokuguquka kwesimo sezulu noma ukuqagela kwesimo sezulu, kodwa futhi nakwezinye izinto, njengokushisa, umoya omoya, ukwanda kwesidingo kanye nenani labantu, izidingo zezolimo, nezinye izinto. Kungakho ucwaningo luphakamisa ukwenza ukuhlela okugxile hhayi ekunqumeni ukunciphisa kanye namaphesenti emithombo yamanzi, kepha ukwazi ukuhlaziya ukuqina (amandla wokuzivumelanisa nokuthwala imithwalo) amanzi agciniwe anayo lapho ebhekene nezimo zokuxineka. Ngale ndlela, kungenzeka ukuthi kutholakale ukuthi yiziphi izindawo ezisengozini enkulu emthelela wokuguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nokuphakamisa izindlela zokuzivumelanisa nezimo.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu kusongela izindawo zethu zamanzi. Amanzi ayimpahla eyigugu kakhulu futhi edingekayo okumele siyivikele.

 


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.