Yintoni umlilo wehlathi

ihlathi elivuthayo

Ezindabeni sihlala sibona umonakalo owenziwe kukutsha kwamahlathi. Kodwa kukho abantu abaninzi abangaziyo ukuba yintoni na umlilo wehlathi okanye ukuba uqala njani. Kubalulekile ukwazi ukuba ukutshiswa kwamahlathi ziinkqubo zendalo ngokupheleleyo ezikhoyo kwindalo eziyinxalenye yolungelelwaniso lwendalo. Nangona kunjalo, ingxaki ibonakala xa umlilo wehlathi ubangelwa ngabantu kwaye awuhambelani nenxalenye ye-ecological balance.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba yintoni umlilo wehlathi, yintoni imvelaphi yawo kunye neempawu.

Yintoni umlilo wehlathi

umlilo we mijas

Ihlathi liyatsha ukukhutshwa komlilo okungalawulekiyo otshabalalisa iindawo ezinkulu zehlathi okanye ezinye izityalo. Zibonakaliswa ngumlilo, izinto zabo zokubasa ziyinkuni kunye nezicubu zezityalo, kwaye umoya uphazamisa ukuphuhliswa kwabo. Le mililo inokubangelwa zizizathu zendalo kwaye ibangelwa ngumntu (izenzo zomntu). Kwimeko yokuqala, zenzeke ngenxa yemiphumo yombane kwiimeko ezinzima zembalela kunye nobushushu, kodwa ezininzi zibangelwa ngengozi okanye ngezenzo zabantu.

Ziyenye yezona ziphambili oonobangela bokuthotywa okanye ilahleko yenkqubo yokuphilisana kwezilwanyana nezityalo (ikhosistim) kuba zinokuphelisa ngokupheleleyo ukugquma kwezityalo kunye nezilwanyana zaloo ndawo.. Oku kwandisa ukhukuliseko lomhlaba, kwandisa ukuqengqeleka, kwaye kunciphisa ukungena kwamanzi, okunciphisa ukufumaneka kwamanzi.

Kukho iintlobo ezintathu ezisisiseko zemililo yamahlathi, egqitywe luhlobo lwezityalo, ukufuma kwendawo, ubushushu kunye neemeko zomoya. Le yimililo engaphezulu, imililo yezithsaba kunye nemililo ephantsi komhlaba.

Ukuthintela ukutsha kwamahlathi, ukwaziwa koluntu ngale ngxaki nemiphumo yayo kubalulekile. Kukwanjalo nangolondolozo lwendalo esingqongileyo, ubhaqo kunye neenkqubo zokulumkisa kwangethuba, nokuba nabacimi-mlilo bamahlathi.

Iimpawu zokutsha kwehlathi

yintoni umlilo wehlathi kunye neziphumo

Imililo yasehlathini ibonakala ngokubakho kwiindawo ezivulekileyo apho umoya udlala indima yokumisela. Kwelinye icala, izinto ezinokutsha ezizondlayo zizinto zezityalo, ezifana ne-lignin ne-cellulose, ezitsha lula.

ngemvelaphi yayo inhlanganisela yezinto ezinokutsha, ukushisa kunye neoksijini kwakuyimfuneko. Izinto eziphambili ezinegalelo kubukho bezityalo ezomileyo kunye nomhlaba ophantsi kunye nokufuma komoya, kunye namaqondo obushushu aphezulu kunye nomoya onamandla.

Ukuqulunqwa okuthe ngqo

Uhlobo lwesityalo kwindawo ethile lunokugqiba ukuba kude kangakanani kwaye ngokukhawuleza kangakanani umlilo uya kusasazeka. Ngokomzekelo, iirasi eziveliswa ngamaconifers ezifana nepine kunye necypress zonyusa ukutsha kwezinto zezityalo. Kwakhona, ezinye ii-angiosperms ezivela kwiintsapho ezifana ne-sumac kunye ne-hay (ingca) ngamafutha abalaseleyo. Ngokukodwa kwiindawo ezinengca ezinde, amadangatye asasazeka ngokukhawuleza okukhulu.

Topography

Ubume bendawo kunye nendlela yomoya kwindawo yomlilo wasendle zizigqibo zokusasazeka kunye nokusasazeka komlilo. Ngokomzekelo, umlilo ecaleni kwenduli, ukuhamba komoya kuphakama kwaye kusasazeka ngesantya esiphezulu kunye nomlilo ovuthayo. Kwakhona, kwindawo emathambekeni, amaqhekeza ezinto zokubasa ezivuthayo (uthuthu) zinokuwa lula.

umlilo kunye ne-ikhosistim

Kwezinye i-ecosystems, umlilo yenye yeempawu zabo zokusebenza, kwaye uhlobo luye lwaqhelana kwaye luxhomekeke kwimililo yamaxesha athile. Kwii-savannahs kunye namahlathi aseMeditera, umzekelo, ukutshiswa kuqhutyelwa rhoqo ukuhlaziya uhlaza kunye nokuthanda ukuntshula okanye ukuveliswa ngokutsha kweentlobo ezithile.

Kwelinye icala, uninzi lwezinye izinto eziphilayo nendawo eziphila kuzo azikwazi ukumelana nomlilo kwaye zichatshazelwa kakhulu yimililo yasendle. Le yimeko yamahlathi ashinyeneyo, amahlathi ashinyeneyo, njl.njl.

Amacandelo omlilo wasendle

yintoni umlilo wehlathi

Indawo yomlilo wehlathi ngokusisiseko inqunywe ngulwalathiso apho umlilo uqondiswa khona, ogqitywa ngumoya. Ngaloo ndlela, umgca womlilo, i-flanks kunye nomsila, kunye nokugxila kwesibini kuchazwe. Ukususela kwindawo yokuqala, umlilo usasazeka kuwo onke amacala kwinqwelomoya, kodwa ulwalathiso lomoya olukhoyo luchaza iimpawu zalo.

  • phambi komlilo: ngumphambili womlilo, othanda kwicala lomoya ovuthuzayo, namadangatye aphakame ngokwaneleyo ukuba kuvele iilwimi zamadangatye. Le yokugqibela isandiso se-longitudinal yangaphambili, egubungela umhlaba kunye nokwandisa indawo yomlilo.
  • Imida: ngamalungu asemacaleni omlilo anxulumene nomphambili oqhubela phambili, apho umoya ubetha ecaleni. Kulo mmandla, imililo yayingaphantsi kwaye iqhubela phambili ngokucothayo.
  • Cola: ngumva womlilo wehlathi, ohambelana nemvelaphi yomlilo. Ngeli xesha, ilangatye liphantsi ngenxa yokuba uninzi lwezixhobo zepetroli zidliwe.
  • Ujoliso lwesibini: isenzo samaqhekeza ezinto ezivuthayo ezishukunyiswa yintshukumo yomoya okanye ithambeka eliqhina ngokuqhelekileyo lidala umthombo wokutshisa okude kwinucleus engundoqo.

Oonobangela abaphambili bomlilo wehlathi

Umlilo wamahlathi unokubangelwa zizizathu zendalo okanye imisebenzi yabantu.

Izizathu zendalo

Eminye imililo yezityalo iveliswa ngezizathu ezingqongqo zendalo, njengemiphumo yombane. Kwakhona, ukubanakho ukutsha okuzenzekelayo kweentlobo ezithile zezityalo phantsi kweemeko ezifanelekileyo kuye kwaphawulwa. Nangona kunjalo, abanye abaphandi bayakukhanyela oku kunokwenzeka ngenxa yokuba ubushushu obufunekayo ukuze kuqale ukutsha kwehlathi bungaphezu kwama-200 ºC.

izizathu ezenziwe ngabantu

Ngaphezu kwe-90% yemililo yasendle ibangelwa ngabantu, nokuba kwenzeke ngempazamo, ngokungakhathali, okanye ngabom.

  • Iingozi: Umlilo wamahlathi amaninzi ubangelwa yimijikelezo emfutshane okanye ukugqithiswa kweentambo zombane ezidlula kwiindawo zendalo. Kwezinye iimeko, oku kwenzeka ngenxa yokuba ukhula aluzange lususwe kwisiseko senqaba kunye neentambo zombane.
  • Ukungakhathali: Oyena nobangela uxhaphake kakhulu wokutsha kwehlathi kukutsha kweenkampu ekunzima ukuwucima okanye ongalawulekiyo. Tshisa inkunkuma okanye iimpundu ezilahlwe ecaleni kwendlela ngendlela efanayo.
  • Kunjalo nje: Imililo yamahlathi eyenziwe ngabantu ixhaphakile. Ngoko ke, kukho abantu abaneengxaki zengqondo kuba bethanda ukubasa umlilo (abatshisi).

Kwelinye icala, imililo emininzi yamahlathi ibaswa ngabom ukuze kutshatyalaliswe uhlaza olugqunyiweyo nokuthethelela ukusetyenziswa komhlaba kwezinye iinjongo. Ngokomzekelo, kuye kwanikelwa ingxelo yokuba oyena nobangela wemililo eAmazon kukutshiswa ngabom kwengca nokuveliswa kwezityalo, ingakumbi iimbotyi zesoya.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni umlilo wehlathi kunye neempawu zawo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
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