yintoni inkwenkwezi

iinkwenkwezi esibhakabhakeni

Xa sithetha nge-astronomy kunye nendawo yangaphandle, ingqikelelo ye-astro isoloko isetyenziswa. Noko ke, abantu abaninzi abazi ukuba yintoni na inkwenkwezi. Kuyo yonke iminyele kukho intaphane yezinto ezisesibhakabhakeni ezineempawu ezahlukahlukeneyo neziyinxalenye yendalo yethu. Kunika umdla ukwazi yintoni inkwenkwezi kwaye ibaluleke kangakanani?

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba yintoni inkwenkwezi, zeziphi iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

yintoni inkwenkwezi

yintoni inkwenkwezi kwindalo iphela

Ngokwembono yeenkwenkwezi, izidalwa ezahlukahlukeneyo ezikwindalo iphela zibizwa ngokuba ziinkwenkwezi, okanye ngokusesikweni ngakumbi, izidalwa zasesibhakabhakeni. Ukuthetha ngokuthe ngqo, iinkwenkwezi ziyinto enye, ubukho bayo buye bachazwa okanye baqinisekiswa ngeendlela zesayensi zokuphononongwa kwendawo, ngoko ke zenza udidi lwezidalwa zasezulwini apho izidalwa ezininzi zesibhakabhaka zinokubakho khona, njenge. amakhonkco eplanethi okanye iinkwenkwezi, ibhanti ye-asteroid, yenziwe ngezinto ezininzi ezahlukeneyo.

Izinto zesijikelezi-langa sethu ezikhoyo kwindawo engaphandle ziye zabangela umdla kuluntu ukususela kwixesha lamandulo, kwaye ziye zaqhubeka zijongwa kwaye ziqondwa ngeeteleskopu, iiprobe zasemkhathini, kwanohambo oluya enyangeni oluqhutywa ngumntu. Ngenxa yale migudu sinokufunda okuninzi ngamanye amazwe akhoyo, iminyele ewaphetheyo kunye nendalo engenasiphelo equlethe yonke into.

Nangona kunjalo, nangoncedo lweeteleskopu eziqhelekileyo, zonke iinkwenkwezi ezikhoyo azinakubonwa ngeliso lenyama. Abanye bade bafune izixhobo ezikhethekileyo zesayensi, okanye ubukho babo bunokuchazwa kuphela kwiziphumo zabo zomzimba kweminye imizimba ebangqongileyo.

iinkwenkwezi zesixokelelwano selanga

yintoni inkwenkwezi

Isixokelelwano sezijikelezi-langa, njengoko sisazi, ligama lendawo eselumelwaneni yelanga lethu apho izijikelezi-langa nezinye izinto ezenza indawo ethe ngqo ye-ecosystem kwi-orbit. Isuka kumbindi weLanga ngokwalo ukuya kumda wangaphandle welifu lezinto ezingaqondakaliyo. eyaziwa ngokuba lifu le-Oort kunye neKuiper Belt. Ubude benkqubo yelanga ukuya kwiplanethi yayo yokugqibela (Neptune) ingaphezulu kwe-4.500 yeebhiliyoni zeekhilomitha, ezilingana ne-30,10 ye-astronomical units (AU).

Kukho iindidi ezininzi zeenkwenkwezi kwisixokelelwano selanga, ezifana nezi:

  • 1 inkwenkwezi yelanga
  • Iiplanethi ezisi-8. IMercury, IVenus, uMhlaba, iMars, iJupiter, iSaturn, iUranus, iNeptune.
  • Iiplanethi ezi-5 ezincinci. Pluto, Ceres, Eris, Makemake, kunye neHaumea.
  • Iisathelayithi zendalo ezingama-400.
  • 3153 iicomets.

Iinkwenkwezi

Iinkwenkwezi ziibhola ezishushu zerhasi kunye neplasma ezigcinwa kuqhushumbo olungapheliyo ngokudityaniswa kweeathom ngenxa yomtsalane wazo. Ugqabhuko-dubulo luvelise isixa esikhulu sokukhanya, imitha ye-electromagnetic, kunye nomcimbi, njenge iiathom ze-hydrogen kunye ne-helium eyayikuyo zaguqulwa zaba ziziqalelo ezinzima, njengabo benza isijikelezi-langa sethu.

Iinkwenkwezi zinokuba neentlobo ezahlukeneyo, kuxhomekeke kubukhulu bazo, umxholo weathomu, kunye nombala wokukhanya kwe-incandescent. Esona sijikelezi-langa sikufutshane nesijikelezi-langa sethu lilanga, nangona inani eliguquguqukayo leenkwenkwezi linokubonwa kwiindawo ezikude zesibhakabhaka ebusuku. Kuqikelelwa ukuba kukho malunga ne-250.000.000 yeenkwenkwezi kumnyele wethu.

Iiplanethi

Iiplanethi zizinto ezingqukuva ezinobukhulu obahlukeneyo, ezenziwe kwisixhobo segesi esifanayo esibangele iinkwenkwezi, kodwa zipholile ngokungenasiphelo kwaye zijiyile ngakumbi, kwaye ke zineempawu ezahlukeneyo zomzimba kunye neekhemikhali. Kukho iiplanethi zegesi (njengeJupiter), iiplanethi ezinamatye (njengeMercury), iiplanethi ezinomkhenkce (njengeNeptune), kwaye kukho uMhlaba, iplanethi ekuphela kwayo esiyaziyo enamanzi amaninzi angamanzi, kwaye ke iplanethi ekuphela kwayo enobomi.

Ngokuxhomekeke kubukhulu bazo, zinokuthiwa ziiplanethi ezincinci: ezinye zincinci kakhulu ukuba zingathelekiswa neeplanethi eziqhelekileyo, kodwa zikhulu kakhulu ukuba zingathathwa njenge-asteroids, kwaye zikhona ngokuzimeleyo, oko kukuthi, nokuba ziinyanga okanye hayi. nakubani na

I-Satellites

Iiplanethi ezijikelezayo, kunokwenzeka ukuba ufumane iinkwenkwezi ezifanayo, kodwa kwinqanaba elincinci kakhulu, ezibanjwe ngomxhuzulane kwiindlela ezikufutshane okanye ezikufutshane, ngaphandle kokuwela kuzo okanye ukuhlehla ngokupheleleyo.

Leyo yimeko yenyanga ekuphela kwayo yesijikelezi-langa sethu: inyanga kunye nentaphane yeenkwenkwezi zezinye izijikelezi-langa ezibalulekileyo, njenge. Iinyanga zeJupiter, kuqikelelwa malunga nama-79 namhlanje. Ezi nyanga zisenokuba nemvelaphi efanayo nazo. Iiplanethi ezinxibeleleneyo, okanye zinokuvela kweminye imithombo, zitsalwa ngokulula ngumxhuzulane, zizigcina zikwi-orbit.

Kites

IiComets zaziwa njengezinto ezihambayo zazo zonke iintlobo kwaye zenziwe ngomkhenkce, uthuli, namatye asuka kwimithombo eyahlukeneyo. Ezi zidalwa zasesibhakabhakeni zijikeleza iLanga kwi-elliptical, parabolic okanye hyperbolic orbits kwaye ziyabonakala kuba njengoko zisondela ezinkwenkwezini, ubushushu bunyibilikisa imikhenkce yazo yomkhenkce kwaye bubanike “umsila” wegesi owahluke kakhulu. IiComets zaziwa njengenxalenye yesixokelelwano selanga kunye neendlela ezinokuqikelelwa, ezifana ne Icomet edumileyo yeHalley, eyenzeka kuthi rhoqo emva kweminyaka engama-76.

Imvelaphi echanekileyo ye-comets ayaziwa, kodwa yonke into ibonisa ukuba banokuvela kumaqela e-trans-Neptunian afana ne-Oort Cloud okanye i-Kuiper Belt ekupheleni kwenkqubo yelanga, malunga ne-100.000 AU evela kwiLanga.

Iiasteroids

meteorites

I-asteroids zizinto ezinamatye ezinemilo emininzi (ngokuqhelekileyo isinyithi okanye izakhi zeminerali) kunye neemilo ezingaqhelekanga, ezincinci kakhulu kuneeplanethi okanye iinyanga.

Ngaphandle kwe-atmosfera, ubomi obuninzi kwisixokelelwano sethu selanga benza ibhanti elikhulu phakathi kweMars neJupiter elahlula iiplanethi ezingaphakathi kwiiplanethi ezingaphandle. Abanye, endaweni yoko, ziyabhadula emajukujukwini, zinqumla imijikelo yezijikelezi-langa okanye zibe ziisathelayithi zenkwenkwezi enkulu.

iimeteoroids

Eli ligama elinikwe ezona zinto zincinci kwinkqubo yethu yelanga, ngaphantsi kweemitha ezingama-50 ububanzi kodwa bukhulu kune-100 yeemicrometer (kwaye ke ngoko inkulu kunothuli lwecosmic).

Zisenokuba ngamaqhekeza eenkanyezi ezinomsila kunye neeasteroids ebezitsala nzima, mhlawumbi zitsalwa ngumxhuzulane wesi sijikelezi-langa, kwiatmosphere yazo zajika zaba ziimeteorite. Xa ezi zamva zisenzeka, ubushushu bokukhuhlana nomoya osesibhakabhakeni ziyazifudumeza zize zizenze zibe ngumphunga ngokupheleleyo okanye ngokuyinxenye. Kwezinye iimeko, amaqhekeza e-meteor abetha umphezulu woMhlaba.

Nebulae

I-Nebulae yingqokelela yerhasi, ikakhulu i-hydrogen kunye ne-helium, kunye nothuli lwe-cosmic kunye nezinye izinto, ezisasazwe kwi-space, ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi kwendawo ebanjwe ngumxhuzulane. Ngamanye amaxesha lo mva womelele ngokwaneleyo ukuqala ukucinezela yonke le nto ye-stellar, ukudala iinkwenkwezi ezintsha.

La maqela egesi, nawo, anokuba yimveliso yokutshatyalaliswa kweenkwenkwezi, ezifana ne-supernovae, okanye ukuqokelela izinto ezisele kwinkqubo yokudala iinkwenkwezi ezincinci. I-nebula esondeleyo kuMhlaba yi-Helix Nebula, iminyaka engama-650 yokukhanya ukusuka eLangeni.

Iminyele

Amaqela eenkwenkwezi, ngalinye linokuba nenkqubo yalo yelanga, kunye ne-nebulae, uthuli lwe-cosmic, iikhomethi, amabhanti e-asteroid, kunye nezinye izinto zasezulwini. yenza iiyunithi ezinkulu ezibizwa ngokuba yiminyele.

Ngokuxhomekeke kwinani leenkwenkwezi ezibumba umnyele, sinokuthetha ngeminyele emincinane (iinkwenkwezi ezili-107) okanye iminyele emikhulu (iinkwenkwezi ezili-1014); kodwa sinokuzihlela zibe spiral, elliptical, lenticular and irregular.

Umnyele apho ummandla wezijikelezi-langa ukhoyo nguMnyezi, othiywe ngobisi lukamama uHera, uthixokazi wempucuko yamaGrike amandulo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni inkwenkwezi, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
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