Yintoni i-ecosystem

yintoni i-ecosystem

Abantu abaninzi abazi yintoni i-ecosystem. I-ecosystems ziinkqubo zebhayoloji ezenziwe ngamaqela ezinto eziphilayo ezisebenzisanayo kunye nendalo esingqongileyo ezihlala kuyo. Kukho ubudlelwane obuninzi phakathi kweentlobo kunye naphakathi kwabantu bohlobo olufanayo. Izinto eziphilayo zidinga indawo yokuhlala, nto leyo esiyibiza ngokuba yindawo yokuhlala yendalo. Kwimeko-bume ohlala kuyo, idla ngokubizwa ngokuba yibhayom okanye i-biome. Iintlobo ngeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo zikhona kwihlabathi jikelele, nganye inezityalo nezilwanyana ezizodwa eziphenjelelwa ziimeko zejoloji nezokusingqongileyo.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni i-ecosystem, zithini iimpawu zayo kunye neentlobo ezahlukeneyo ezikhoyo.

Yintoni i-ecosystem

ihlathi

Xa sisithi zonke iindidi ziphila kwi-ecosystem, kungenxa yokuba ifumaneka kwindawo apho izinto eziphilayo nezingaphiliyo zidibana khona. Ngolu nxibelelwano, izinto kunye namandla zinokutshintshwa, yaye ulungelelwano esilwaziyo lugcina ubomi. Yongeza isimaphambili eco- kuba sibhekisa kwindawo yendalo ngokupheleleyo.

Sinokuthi ezinye iikhonsepthi zenziwe kwinqanaba le-ikholoji, njenge-biome, ebhekiselele kwindawo enkulu yejografi equka i-ecosystems ezininzi ezisikelwe kwiindawo ezithintelwe ngakumbi. Kwi-ecosystem, isifundo sobudlelwane phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo kunye nokusingqongileyo. Sinokuthi umlinganiselo we-ecosystem uguquguquka kakhulu, kuba sinokuthi ihlathi liyi-ecosystem kunye ne-pool ye-fungus efanayo nayo i-ecosystem eqhelekileyo. Ngale ndlela, ngabantu kuphela abanokuchaza imida yendawo ekufuneka ifundwe.

Imimandla ihlala yohlulwa ngokweempawu zayo kuba yahlukile kweminye imimandla. Ukuba sibuyela kumzekelo wangaphambili, echibini kwi Ihlathi lineemeko ezahlukeneyo zokusingqongileyo kunenxalenye esemhlabeni yehlathi. Yiyo loo nto ikwazi ukubeka iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezityalo kunye nezilwanyana kwaye inezinye iintlobo zeemeko.

Ngale ndlela, sinokubona indlela iintlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-ecosystems ezihlelwa ngayo ngokweenqobo ezahlukeneyo. Sinokuthetha nge-ecosystem yendalo kunye ne-artificial ecosystems. Ekugqibeleni, kukho ukungenelela kwabantu.

Izixhobo

Siza kufunda ukuba ngawaphi amacandelo ahlukeneyo e-ecosystem kunye nendlela adibana ngayo ne-abiotic kunye ne-biotic components. Onke la malungu akuthungelwano oluntsonkothileyo lokutshintshiselana rhoqo kwematha kunye namandla. Makhe sihlalutye ukuba ziyintoni na ngokweenkcukacha:

  • Izinto ze-Abiotic: Xa sibhekisela kula macandelo, sibhekisela kuzo zonke iinxalenye eziyilayo kodwa ezingenabomi. Sinokuthi ziyinxalenye ye-abiotic okanye i-inert efana namanzi, umhlaba, umoya kunye namatye. Ukongeza, kukho ezinye izinto zendalo ezinje ngemitha yelanga, imozulu yendawo, kunye nezinto ezenziweyo kunye nenkunkuma ekwathathwa njengenxalenye ye-abiotic.
  • Amalungu ebhayoloji: La malungu aquka zonke izinto eziphilayo ezikhoyo kwi-ecosystem. Zisenokuba ziibhaktheriya, i-archaea, umngundo, okanye nasiphi na isityalo okanye isilwanyana, kuquka abantu. Kunokushwankathelwa ukuba zizinto eziphilayo.

Iindidi kunye neempawu

Izinto eziphila emanzini

Siza kubona ukuba zeziphi iintlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-ikhosistim ezikhoyo ehlabathini. Zinokwahlulwa zibe ngamaqela ama-4 amakhulu, ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  • Isixokelelwano se-ecosystem: I-ecosystem apho i-biotic kunye ne-abiotic components zidibana khona okanye ngaphakathi eMhlabeni. Siyazi ukuba ngaphakathi eMhlabeni, umhlaba yi-ikhosistim eqhelekileyo ngenxa yesakhono sawo sokuxhasa nokuphuhlisa iyantlukwano enkulu. I-ecosystem ye-ecosystem ichazwa ngeentlobo zezityalo ezizisekayo, ezithi zisekwe yimeko yokusingqongileyo kunye neentlobo zemozulu. Uhlaza lunoxanduva lokusebenzisana nobutyebi bezityalo nezilwanyana ezohlukeneyo.
  • Izinto eziphila emanzini: Ii-ecosystems eziphawulwa ikakhulu ngokudibana kwe-biotic kunye ne-abiotic components kumanzi alulwelo. Kunokuthiwa, ngokwale ngqiqo, kukho ubukhulu becala iindidi ezimbini zezinto eziphila elwandle, eziphakathi kwazo ziziinkqubo zendalo zamanzi etyuwa kunye nenkqubo yokuphilisana kwezidalwa zamanzi acwengileyo. Ezi zamva zihlala zohlulwa zibe yi-lentic kunye ne-lotic. i-lentic ngala manzi apho amanzi acothayo okanye amile. Ngokuqhelekileyo ngamachibi kunye namachibi. Izithambiso, kwelinye icala, zezo zinamanzi ahamba ngokukhawuleza njengemilambo nemilambo.
  • Izinto ezixubeneyo zendalo: I-ikhosistim edibanisa ubuncinci imimandla emibini, esemhlabeni neyamanzi. Nangona kumaxesha amaninzi le ecosystem ikwabandakanya imo engqongileyo yangasemva yomoya, izinto eziphilayo kufuneka ziziqhelanise nokuseka ubudlelwane phakathi kwazo kunye nokusingqongileyo. Ingenziwa ngokukhawuleza okanye ngamaxesha, njengakwi-savanna ekhukhulayo okanye ihlathi laseVarzea. Apha, sibona ukuba uphawu lwebhayoloji luphawu lweentaka zolwandle, njengoko ubukhulu becala zisemhlabeni, kodwa zikwaxhomekeke kulwandle ekutyeni.
  • inkqubo yendalo yabantu: Uphawu lwayo oluphambili lutshintshiselwano lwe-matter kunye namandla, ukuphuma kunye nokungena kwi-ecosystem, ngokusisiseko kuxhomekeke kumntu. Nangona ezinye izinto eziphilayo zibandakanyeka ngokwemvelo, njengemitha yelanga, umoya, amanzi kunye nomhlaba, ubukhulu becala zilawulwa ngabantu.

Eminye imizekelo

Masidwelise imizekelo yeentlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-ikhosistim.

  • Ihlathi: Ludidi lwe-ecosystem enendibaniselwano entsonkothileyo yamacandelo apho sifumana izinto ezahlukeneyo eziphilayo ezakha iiweb zokutya ezintsonkothileyo. Imithi ivelisa imveliso yokuqala kwaye zonke izinto eziphilayo ziphinda zisetyenziswe emva kokuba zibulewe ngababoli bomhlaba ehlathini.
  • Iingqaqa zecoral: Kule ecosystem, izinto ezisembindini zokwakheka kwebhayoloji ziicoral polyps. Iingqaqa zekorale eziphilayo zilikhaya lezinye iintlobo ezininzi zasemanzini.
  • Ihlathi laseVarzea: Lihlathi elenziwe lithafa eliqholiweyo elisoloko likhukuliswa ngamanzi. Ikhula kakuhle kwiibhayom ezaziwa njengexabiso letropiki. Iquka i-ecosystem exubeneyo apho isiqingatha se-ecosystem sisemhlabeni ngakumbi kwaye esinye isiqingatha sisemanzini ubukhulu becala.

Iindidi zezinto eziphilayo

amahlathi

Inkqubo yendalo yomhlaba

Phakathi kweentlobo ze-ecosystems zomhlaba, kuyimfuneko ukuthathela ingqalelo iindawo apho izinto eziphilayo zikhula khona. Umphezulu womhlaba apho baphuhlisa khona kwaye ukuseka ubudlelwane omnye komnye kubizwa ngokuba yi-biosphere. Le ecosystem yenzeka ngaphezulu nangaphantsi komhlaba. Iimeko esinokuzifumana kule mixokomelwano yokuphilisana kwezidalwa zimiselwa yimiba efana nokufuma, ubushushu, ukuphakama kunye nobubanzi.

Ezi ziguquko zine zithatha isigqibo malunga nokuphuhliswa kobomi kwindawo ethile. Amaqondo obushushu ahlala engaphantsi kweqondo lomkhenkce zahluke malunga nama-20 degrees. Singakwazi kwakhona ukuchonga imvula yonyaka njengowona tshintsho luphambili. Le mvula iya kugqiba uhlobo lobomi obukhula ngeenxa zonke kuyo. Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana ezijikeleze umlambo zahlukile kwizinto esinokuzifumana kwi-savannah.

Okukhona uphezulu ukufuma kunye namaqondo obushushu, kwaye okukhona usezantsi umphakamo kunye nobubanzi, kokukhona sifumana iindidi ngeendidi zezinto eziphilayo. Zihlala zizityebi ngeentlobo kwaye zinezigidi zonxibelelwano phakathi kweentlobo kunye nendawo ezingqongileyo. Okuchaseneyo kuyinyaniso kwi i-ikhosistim ekhula kwindawo ephezulu kunye nokufuma okuphantsi kunye nobushushu.

Ngokubanzi, ii-ikhosistim ezisemhlabeni zahluka kakhulu kwaye zizityebi ngokwebhayoloji kunenkqubo yendalo yasemanzini. Oku kungenxa yokuba kukho ukukhanya okungakumbi, ubushushu obuvela elangeni, nokufikelela lula ekutyeni.

Inkqubo yendalo yaselwandle

Inkqubo yendalo yaselwandle

Olu hlobo lwe-ecosystem lolona lukhulu kwi iplanethi yonke kuba igubungela i-70% yomphezulu weplanethi. Ulwandle lukhulu kwaye amanzi anezimbiwa atyebileyo, ngoko ke ubomi bunokukhula phantse kuzo zonke iikona.

Kwezi zixokelelwano zendalo, sifumana uluntu olukhulu olunjengengca yolwandle, imingxuma enzulu yolwandle, kunye neengqaqa zekorale.

inkqubo yamanzi acocekileyo

Nangona zingena kwi-ikhosistim yasemanzini, amandla kunye nobudlelwane phakathi kwezidalwa azifani kumanzi acocekileyo njengakumanzi anetyuwa. Imixokomelwano yamanzi acocekileyo yinkqubo yendalo eyenziwe ngamachibi kunye nemilambo, eyahlulahlulwe yangamanzi amileyo, iinkqubo zamanzi abalekayo, kunye neenkqubo zemigxobhozo.

Inkqubo ye-lentic iquka amachibi kunye namachibi. Igama elithi lentiki libhekisela kwisantya ahamba ngaso amanzi. Kule meko, intshukumo iphantsi kakhulu. Kolu hlobo lwamanzi, iileya zenziwa ngokuxhomekeke kubushushu kunye netyuwa. Kungelo xesha apho kuvela khona imigangatho ephezulu, i-thermocline kunye nesezantsi. Iinkqubo zeLotic ziinkqubo apho amanzi ahamba ngokukhawuleza, njengemilambo kunye ne-rapids. Kwezi meko, amanzi ahamba ngokukhawuleza ngenxa yokuthambeka komhlaba kunye nomxhuzulane.

Imigxobhozo yinkqubo yendalo eyahlukeneyo ngokwebhayoloji kuba izele ngamanzi. Ilungile kwiintaka ezifudukayo kunye nezo zitya ngeefilitha, njengeeflamingo.

Iintlobo ezithile zezilwanyana ezinethambo lomqolo, kuqukwa neziphakathi nezincinci, zilawula le mixokomelwano yendalo. Asizange sizifumane ezinkulu kuba zazingenandawo ingako yokukhula.

Iintlango

Ekubeni intlango inemvula encinane kakhulu, ngokunjalo nezityalo nezilwanyana. Izinto eziphilayo kwezi ndawo zinamandla amakhulu okuphila ngenxa yamawaka eminyaka yeenkqubo zokuziqhelanisa. Kule meko, ekubeni ubudlelwane phakathi kweentlobo buncinci, zizinto ezimiselayo, ngoko ulungelelwaniso lwendalo aluyi kuphazamiseka. Ke, xa uhlobo oluthile luchaphazeleka kanobom lulo naluphi na uhlobo lwempembelelo yokusingqongileyo, sizifumana sineziphumo ezibi kakhulu zokubambisa.

Kwaye, ukuba uhlobo olunye luqala ukunciphisa kakhulu amanani alo, siya kufumana ezinye ezininzi zisengozini. Kwezi ndawo zokuhlala zendalo sifumana iintyatyambo eziqhelekileyo ezifana necacti kunye nezihlahlana ezinamagqabi amahle. Izilwanyana ziquka izilwanyana ezirhubuluzayo, iintaka kunye nezilwanyana ezanyisayo ezincinci neziphakathi. Ezi ziintlobo ezikwaziyo ukuziqhelanisa nezi ndawo.

Intaba

Olu hlobo lwe-ecosystem luphawulwa ngokukhululeka kwayo. Kukwindawo ephakamileyo apho uhlaza kunye nezilwanyana zingakhuli kakuhle. Kwezi ndawo, i-biodiversity ayikho phezulu kangako. Yehla njengoko sinyuka kwindawo ephakamileyo. Iinduli zentaba zihlala zihlala kwiintlobo ezininzi kwaye kukho intsebenziswano phakathi kweentlobo kunye nokusingqongileyo.

Phakathi kweentlobo ezifumaneka kule mibhobho yendalo kukho iingcuka, iinyamakazi kunye neebhokhwe zasezintabeni. Kukwakho neentaka ezidla inyama, ezifana namaxhalanga namaxhalanga. Iintlobo kufuneka zilungelelanise kwaye zifihle ukuqinisekisa ukusinda ngaphandle kokuba zizingelwe enye kwenye.

Amahlathi kunye neenkqubo zamahlathi

izinto ezahlukeneyo zenzululwazi

I-ecosystems yehlathi ibonakala ngokuxinana okuphezulu kwemithi kunye nenani elikhulu lezityalo kunye nezilwanyana. Kukho iintlobo ezininzi zezinto eziphilayo zamahlathi, phakathi kwazo esifumana ihlathi, ihlathi elipholileyo, ihlathi elomileyo kunye nehlathi le-coniferous. Okukhona imithi isanda, kokukhona kukho iintlobo-ntlobo zezinto eziphilayo.

Ubude budlala indima ebalulekileyo phambi kweflora. Ukuphakama kokuphakama, uxinzelelo oluncinci kunye ne-oxygen ekhoyo. Ngoko ke, ukusuka kwindawo ephakamileyo yeemitha ezingama-2500 ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle, imithi ayiyi kukhula.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni i-ecosystem kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.