unogumbe wehlabathi lonke

unogumbe wendalo yonke

Kuyo yonke imbali, kuye kwathiwa kukho a unogumbe wendalo yonke eyabangela izikhukula ezinkulu kwihlabathi jikelele. Sisiganeko sokuna kwemvula eninzi nengenakunqandeka, eyathi, ngaphandle kwalo naluphi na uhlobo lokuphumla, yagqiba ekubeni ikhukulise uninzi lwesijikelezi-langa. Noko ke, abantu abaninzi bayabuthandabuza ubukho bomkhukula wendalo iphela, kuquka izazinzulu.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikela eli nqaku ukuze sikuxelele yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga nomkhukula wendalo yonke, ukuba ubukhona ngenene kwaye zithini iimpawu kunye neziphumo.

unogumbe wehlabathi lonke

umkhombe kaNowa

Igama likaNogumbe wendalo yonke lizama ukuqokelela, ngokubanzi, iinyaniso ezinxulunyaniswa nemeko yesityholo semvula eqhubekayo ebangela ukuba uMkhukula wendalo iphela utshabalalise abantu ebusweni boMhlaba, ngaphandle kwabambalwa abakhethiweyo.

Kuphela yindoda nentsapho yayo nothotho lwezilwanyana abasindiswayo kwingqumbo yothixo omnye okanye abangaphezulu. Kumabali amaninzi imalunga nempindezelo yoothixo ngenxa yezenzo ezigwenxa zoluntu phambi komthetho wobuthixo (ookumkani okanye ububingeleli). Abanye oothixo, oothixo, okanye amaqhawe athetha nabantu abakhethiweyo malunga nezicwangciso zabo zokusindisa uluntu. Xa unqulo lukholelwa kuThixo omnye, kwa lo thixo ubohlwayayo abantu ngulowo usindisa uluntu ngenxa yabantu abazikhethele yena. Ngamafutshane, lo ngumkhukula jikelele wase-Indo-European.

Kwiinkcubeko zaseNtshona, intsomi yeBhayibhile (okanye inyaniso yabantu bokholo) ichaza indlela uThixo abohlwaya ngayo abantu kwincwadi yeGenesis. Ukuziphatha okubi kwabantu kwakhokelela ekubeni uThixo ohlwaye uluntu ngokuwukhukulisa umhlaba wonke. Abo banyuliweyo yayinguNowa nentsapho yakhe. Kule meko, uThixo ‘ungumohlwayi’ ‘nomsindisi’ woluntu. UNowa wanyulwa ukuba aqhubele phambili uhlobo aze abe ngumseki wohlanga okanye isizwe.

Intsomi yeBhayibhile isuka kwenye indawo ekude, kude lee: amaBhabhiloni. Ngaphambili, ii-polytheists ezazilawula kwaye zilawula "i-Fertile Crescent", kuquka iindawo zaseMesopotamia, eSiriya naseTurkey, zaphuhlisa kwaye zandisa ingcamango yomkhukula wendalo yonke kwisibongo sikaGilgamesh kunye neentlobo zayo. Kulo mbongo, izithixo zohlwaya uluntu, kodwa umpempe womnye uthixo omncinane wasindisa uluntu.

Ngoxa iintsomi ezininzi zisenokuba nesiseko esingokwembali, ukubakho kwembali yoMkhukula kwenza kube nzima ngabantu banamhlanje ukuba bathelekele into ekhoyo kwindalo iphela okanye yehlabathi namhlanje. Ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX okanye yesi-XNUMX ngaphambi kweXesha lethu Eliqhelekileyo, indalo iphela yayililizwe elaziwayo yaye lilinganiselwe kakhulu ngokwezinto ezinokwenzeka zokuphonononga.

Intsomi YamaGrike YoNogumbe Wehlabathi Lonke

unogumbe wendalo yonke wamandulo

Kwintsomi yamaGrike, oothixo badala iintlanga ezihlanu zabantu, eyokugqibela ibe yeyona imbi kakhulu. UZeyus (uthixo owongamileyo weOlympus), ekruqukile bububi boluntu, wagqiba kwelokuba adale unogumbe owoyikekayo nowokugqibela ukuze abaphelise. Ngelo xesha, uZeyus wayengoyena thixo ubalulekileyo kwizithixo zamaGrike.

U-Prometheus wayengumTitan onobuhlobo kubantu abafayo abahlonitshwa ngokuba umlilo ovela koothixo baze bawunike abantu ukuba bawusebenzise. U-Prometheus wohlwaywa nguZeus ngale nto. Kodwa uPrometheus wenza okungakumbi kuluntu, wayengumsindisi woluntu: waxelela unyana wakhe uDeucalion kunye nomfazi wakhe uPyrrhus ukuba baceba ukukhukhula nokutshabalalisa uluntu. U-Prometheus waxelela unyana wakhe uDeucalion ukuba akhe isikhephe esikhulu okanye esincinci, kwaye babenayo yonke into ababeyidinga ukuze bazikhusele kuNogumbe jikelele. Ngoko basinda.

I-Mythology ikhankanya ukuba umkhukula wabangelwa ngumoya ovela eOstrow (emazantsi): "YiNquthu kuphela eyakhululwa, kwaye yathwala imvula emhlabeni." Ekupheleni komkhukula omkhulu, emva kweentsuku ezisithoba nobusuku obusithoba, xa umhlaba womile lwaza ulwandle lwangena elwandle, umkhombe kaDeucalion wehlela kwiNtaba iParnassus, apho kwakukho ingcwele yesithixokazi uThemis.

UDeucalion noPyrrha bangena etempileni ukuze babaxelele into emabayenze ukuze baphinde bazalise umhlaba, kwaye uthixokazi wabaxelela kuphela: "Jikani niwaphose amathambo 'nyoko'". UDeucalion nomfazi wakhe baqikelela ukuba i-oracle yayibhekiselele kwilitye (uthixokazi uGia). Ngele ndlela, ilitye elajulwa nguDeucalion lajika layindoda, kwaye ilitye elaphoswa nguPyrrha lajika laba ngumfazi. Ngale ndlela, uhlobo olutsha noluhlaziyiweyo lwabantu lwenziwa ngabantu ababini. Owokuqala kwaba, uHelen, wazala amaGrike.

Intsomi yamaGrike ifana kakhulu nezinye iintsomi ezingqongileyo: UZeyus wayenguthixo wesohlwayo owayefuna ukutshabalalisa uluntu, uluntu lwajika lwaba bubi ngokungathobeli imithetho yoothixo, omnye uthixo okanye uthixo onguthixo wamxelela ngecebo likaZeyus kumntu onyuliweyo, Yena. kunye nentsapho yakhe yakha umkhombe kwaye uZeyus uvelisa isiganeko sesohlwayo apho imvula eqhubekayo neyintabalala yi-protagonist, abahlangulwa kunye nomthwalo wokwakha i-generator ye-lineages ekhethekileyo kunye nabantu abakhethiweyo ukuba baqalise uluntu.

Ngaba ikho ngokwenene?

intlekele yemvula

Abaphandi baye bafumanisa amabali amalunga nama-500 oMkhukula phantse kuzo zonke iinkcubeko, ulwazi oluxhaswa neenkcukacha zangoku zejoloji nezenzululwazi ngezakudala, kunye neengxelo zebhayibhile. Phakathi kwazo, kubonakala kwiinkcubeko ezinxulumene neTiahuanaco, eBolivia, mhlawumbi isixeko esidala kunazo zonke emhlabeni, apho kukho umkhondo womkhukula omkhulu, into eyenzekayo abanye abavubukuli bakholelwa ukuba iyafana nesiganeko esibizwa ngokuba yi "Universal Flood"; nakwezinye iinkcubeko zangaphambi kweColumbian, ezifana ne-Mesoamerican Toltecs yaseMayans, kwiincwadi zabo ezingcwele, ezifana nePopol Vuh kunye neChilam Balam, okanye i-Aztec.

Ngokwesithethe samaGrike, kuthiwa uZeyus wabona abantu bezigwagwisa kangangokuba wasifumanisa singamkelekanga esi simo sengqondo waza wabangela umkhukula omkhulu; ngenxa Promovio, Decalion, umfazi wakhe uPirra, abantwana babo kunye nezinye izilwanyana zomhlaba basinda, kuquka iihagu, amahashe, iingonyama kunye neenyoka, kwaye indawo yabo yokusabela yayiyibhokisi enkulu, ababehamba ngayo kwimisinga kangangeentsuku ezisithoba nobusuku obusithoba ephuphuma. umhlaba nolwandle. Kukho izithethe ezifanayo eIndiya, eziguqulelwe ngezinto zezithethe zazo., kodwa ukugcina iinkalo ezisisiseko zoMkhukula Omkhulu nosindiso olungummangaliso lwabambalwa. EOstreliya, ePersi, kumzantsi-ntshona weTanzania, eJapan, nakwezinye izithethe ezinempembelelo engakumbi okanye encinane kwindalo iphela.

uluntu lwenzululwazi iphakamisa intlekele enkulu yendalo ekhoyo kwiminyaka engama-9.000 ukuya kwi-12.000 eyadlulayo eya kuphelisa impucuko enkulu emhlabeni. kwaye iya kuhlala kwinkumbulo edibeneyo yabantu abangenakubalwa “njengonogumbe wendalo yonke”. Ibali apho uqikelelo lwezenzululwazi luxutywa nezithethe ezahlukeneyo zonqulo, apho ukufana kubaluleke kakhulu, nangona nganye kuzo izifihla iinkcubeko zayo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nomkhukula wendalo yonke kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1.   Cesar sitsho

    Umxholo wayo usoloko ufanelekile, kodwa kum ndiwufumana ufakwe kwintsomi yendalo iphela—Molweni