Isandi somlilo

pacific ring yomlilo

Kwesi sijikelezi-langa, ezinye iindawo ziyingozi ngakumbi kunezinye, ngoko ke amagama ale mimandla ahlaba umxhwele kwaye usenokucinga ukuba la magama abhekisela kwizinto eziyingozi ngakumbi. Kule meko, siza kuthetha ngayo Isandi somlilo ukusuka kwiPasifiki. Eli gama libhekisa kwindawo engqonge olu lwandlekazi, apho iinyikima kunye neentshukumo zentaba-mlilo zixhaphake kakhulu.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga neRingi yoMlilo, apho ikhoyo kwaye zeziphi iimpawu zayo.

Yintoni iRingi yoMlilo

mlilo esebenzayo

Kulo mmandla omile okwehashe endaweni yesangqa, kuye kwabhalwa inani elikhulu leenyikima kunye nentaba-mlilo. Oku kwenza ukuba indawo ibe yingozi ngakumbi ngenxa yentlekele enokwenzeka. Lo msesane usuka eNew Zealand ukuya kulo lonke unxweme olusentshona loMzantsi Merika, kunye nobude bubonke obungaphezulu kweekhilomitha ezingama-40.000. Ikwacanda lonke unxweme lwaseMpuma Asia kunye neAlaska, idlula kwindawo ekumntla-mpuma woMntla nakuMbindi Merika.

Njengoko kukhankanyiwe kwi-plate tectonics, eli bhanti liphawula umda apho i-Pacific Plate ihlala khona kunye nezinye iipleyiti ezincinci zetectonic ezenza into ebizwa ngokuba yi-crust. Njengommandla oneenyikima rhoqo kunye nentaba-mlilo, uchazwa njengendawo eyingozi.

Uqeqesho

iintaba-mlilo ezisehlabathini

I-Pacific Ring of Fire yenziwa ngokuhamba kweetectonic plates. Iipleyiti azilungiswanga, kodwa zihlala zihamba. Oku kungenxa yobukho be-convection kwi-mantle. Umahluko kubuninzi bezinto ezibangela ukuba zihambe kwaye zenze iiplate zetectonic zihambe. Ngale ndlela, ukufuduswa kweesentimitha ezimbalwa ngonyaka kuphunyeziwe. Asizange siyiqaphele kwinqanaba lomntu, kodwa ukuba sivavanya ixesha le-geologic, liyavela.

Ngaphezulu kwezigidi zeminyaka, ukuhamba kwala macwecwe kwabangela ukusekwa kweRingi yoMlilo yePasifiki. Iipleyiti zeTectonic azidityaniswanga ngokupheleleyo, kodwa kukho izithuba phakathi kwazo. Ngokuqhelekileyo zimalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-80 ubukhulu kwaye zihamba ngokuhambisa kwingubo ekhankanywe ngasentla.

Xa ezi pleyiti zihamba, zidla ngokuhlukana kwaye zingqubane. Ngokuxhomekeke kubuninzi bento nganye, enye inokutshona ngaphaya komnye. Umzekelo, ubuninzi beepleyiti zaselwandle bukhulu kunobo bamacwecwe elizwekazi. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, xa amacwecwe amabini engqubana, antywila phambi kwelinye ipleyiti. Le ntshukumo kunye nokungqubana kwamacwecwe kuvelise imisebenzi eyomeleleyo yejoloji emacaleni amacwecwe. Ke ngoko, ezi ndawo zithathwa ngokuba zisebenza ngokukodwa.

Imida yeplate esiyifumanayo:

  • Umda wokuhlangana. Ngaphakathi kwale mida kukho iindawo apho iipleyiti zetectonic zingqubana khona. Oku kunokubangela ukuba ipleyiti enzima ingqubane nepleyiti ekhaphukhaphu. Ngale ndlela kuthiwa indawo ebizwa ngokuba yi-subduction zone yenziwa. Ipleyiti enye ithoba ngaphezulu kwenye. Kwezi ndawo kwenzeka kuzo oku, kukho iintaba-mlilo ezininzi, kuba oku kuthotywa kubangela ukuba i-magma inyuke kumhlaba. Ngokucacileyo, oku akuyi kwenzeka ngephanyazo. Le yinkqubo ethatha iibhiliyoni zeminyaka. Le yindlela eyenziwa ngayo i-volcanic arc.
  • Imida eyahlukileyo. Zichasene ngqo nokuhlangana. Phakathi kwala macwecwe, amacwecwe akwimo yokwahlukana. Nyaka ngamnye ziyahlukana kancinci, zenze ulwandle olutsha.
  • Imida yenguqu. Kwezi zithintelo, iipleyiti azihlukanga kwaye azixhunywanga, zihamba kuphela ngokuhambelanayo okanye ngokuthe tye.
  • Iindawo ezishushu. Ziyimimandla apho iqondo lokushisa kwengubo ngqo phantsi kwepleyiti liphezulu kuneminye imimandla. Phantsi kwezi meko, i-magma eshushu inokunyukela phezulu kwaye ivelise iintaba-mlilo ezisebenzayo.

Imida yepleyiti ithathwa njengeendawo apho ijoloji kunye nomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo zigxininiswe. Ke ngoko, kuqhelekile ukuba iintaba-mlilo ezininzi kunye neenyikima zomhlaba zigxile kwiRingi yoMlilo yePasifiki. Ingxaki kuxa inyikima isenzeka elwandle ize ibangele itsunami kunye netsunami ehambelana nayo. Phantsi kwezi meko, ingozi iya kwanda kangangokuba inokukhokelela kwiintlekele ezifana nezo zaseFukushima ngo-2011.

Umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo weRingi yoMlilo

umsesane woMlilo

Usenokuba uye waphawula ukuba ukusasazwa kweentaba-mlilo emhlabeni akulingani. Ngokuchaseneyo noko. Ziyinxalenye yendawo enkulu yomsebenzi wejoloji. Ukuba akukho msebenzi onjalo, intaba-mlilo ibingayi kubakho. Iinyikima zibangelwa kukuqokelelana kunye nokukhululwa kwamandla phakathi kweepleyiti. Ezi nyikima zixhaphake kakhulu kumazwe ethu asePacific Ring of Fire.

Ngaba yile nto IRingi yoMlilo ngulowo ugxila kwi-75% yeentaba-mlilo ezisebenzayo zeplanethi yonke. I-90% yeenyikima nazo zenzeka. Kukho iziqithi ezingenakubalwa kunye nama-archipelagos kunye, kunye neentaba-mlilo ezahlukeneyo, ezinogqabhuko-dubulo olunobundlobongela. Iintsika zentaba-mlilo nazo zixhaphake kakhulu. Zingamatyathanga eentaba-mlilo ezibekwe phezu kweepleyiti zokunciphisa.

Le nyaniso yenza abantu abaninzi kwihlabathi jikelele bathabatheke kwaye boyike ngulo mmandla womlilo. Oku kungenxa yokuba amandla ezenzo zabo makhulu yaye anokubangela iintlekele zemvelo zokwenene.

Amazwe edlula kuwo

Eli khonkco libanzi letectonic ligubungela imimandla emine ephambili: uMntla Merika, uMbindi Merika, uMzantsi Merika, iAsia, kunye neOceania.

  • Amantla Emelika: Ibaleka kunxweme olusentshona lweMexico, eUnited States, naseCanada, iqhubekeka ukuya eAlaska, kwaye ijoyina iAsia kuMntla wePasifiki.
  • UMbindi Merika: iquka imimandla yasePanama, eCosta Rica, eNicaragua, e-El Salvador, eHonduras, eGuatemala naseBelize.
  • EMzantsi Melika: Kulo mmandla ugubungela phantse yonke iChile nenxalenye yeArgentina, iPeru, iBolivia, iEcuador neKholombiya.
  • Asia: igubungela unxweme olusempuma yeRashiya kwaye iyaqhubeka nakwamanye amazwe aseAsia anjengeJapan, iiPhilippines, iTaiwan, iIndonesia, iSingapore neMalaysia.
  • Oceania: IiSolomon Islands, iTuvalu, iSamoa kunye neNew Zealand ngamazwe aseOceania apho kukho iRing of Fire.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nePacific Ring yoMlilo, umsebenzi wayo kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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