ukuxinana kwekhephu

ukuxinana kwekhephu

Zingaphi iilitha zemvula ngemitha yesikwere ezilingana nekhephu elibekwe emhlabeni ngexesha elinikiweyo, lisenza uphawu lwengubo emhlophe? Kuvunyiwe jikelele ukuba isentimitha nganye yokuwa kwekhephu entsha ilingana nelitha enye yamanzi emvula ngemitha yesikwere eqokelelwe kwigeyiji yemvula, kodwa kwiimeko ezininzi oku kulingana kuqikelelo oluyinyani, nokuba kungenxa yokugqithiswa okanye ukungonelanga. Izinto ezininzi ziya kungenelela, phakathi kwazo uhlobo lwamahlwantsi ekhephu, i ukuxinana kwekhephu ikakhulu ishiywe kukuwa kwekhephu, kunye nokuguquguquka okufunyanwa sisigqubuthelo sekhephu.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo malunga nokuxinana kwekhephu kunye nokuba libachaphazela njani abantu.

ukuxinana kwekhephu

iziphumo zokuxinana kwekhephu

Sonke sibonile ukuba ikhephu ngalinye lahluke njani kwaye lineempawu zalo. Ngamanye amaxesha xa iimeko zibanda kakhulu kwaye zomile, kwaye ukuba kunekhephu, amahlwantsi ekhephu mancinci kakhulu kwaye axinene (iinkozo zekhephu ezihlala ziwa) kwaye azifane zenze isigqubuthelo esikhulu sekhephu. Imeko iyatshintsha xa isiqulatho sokufuma somoya ogqunywe likhephu sifumile kakhulu, apho ke kuyenzeka i flake enkulu, eguquguqukayo (eyaziwa ngokuba yi "rag"). Ezi khephu zinokuthi ngamanye amaxesha, qokelela ubukhulu obukhulu kwiiyure ezimbalwa. Kwimeko nganye, ukuxinana kwekhephu kuyahluka ngokubanzi.

Ukuthathela ingqalelo ukuba i-porosity yesigqubuthelo sekhephu ihambelana ngokungafaniyo nobuninzi bayo, kuxhomekeke kwikhephu elivelayo, ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi kweesentimitha ezimbalwa zekhephu ziya kuveliswa, kodwa oku akukona nje ngenxa yenani leeflakes ezihlala kwaye. ziqokelela, kodwa ezi mpawu zimisela ubungakanani bokuxinana kwekhephu. Uxinzelelo oluthe lunokwahluka ukusuka kwi-20 kg/m3 kwimeko yekhephu elitsha elibanda kakhulu, phakathi kwe-80 kunye ne-100 kg/m3 kwimeko yekhephu eliqhelekileyo (elona lixhaphakileyo). Ukuya kwi-180 kg / m3 kwiimeko ezibandayo.

Ukuba sigcina amanani angasentla kwaye sidubula umgca ophakathi, umyinge wexabiso eliphantsi loxinano lwekhephu (20 kg/m3) kunye nexabiso eliphezulu lokuxinaniswa kwekhephu (180 kg/m3) yi-110 kg/m3. m3, singakwazi ukufumana malunga ne-100.

Ukukhumbula ukuba ubuninzi bamanzi angamalwelo ye-1.000 kg/m3, xa umlinganiselo woxinaniso we-10 ukuya ku-1 usekiwe., sifika kwinqanaba elilinganayo esilikhankanyileyo ekuqaleni: i-1 cm yekhephu elitsha = i-1 mm yemvula. Ngeenkcukacha ezincinci, sinokuluphucula uqikelelo.

ingubo yekhephu

ukuyilwa kwekhephu

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-arithmetic ithetha ukuba sithatha phakathi koxinzelelo olubi kakhulu lwekhephu elitsha kufuneka libe nesisindo esilinganisiweyo, apho, ngokusekelwe kwizibalo zohlobo lwekhephu oluveliswayo, siya kwazi ukuba yintoni ipesenti. Kuhlobo ngalunye, yintoni usasazo oluphindaphindiweyo lwekhephu elibanda kakhulu, eliqhelekileyo, nelimanzi kakhulu? Kwixesha elidlulileyo, baqhube uphando olubanzi kwintsimi yentlekele yekhephu e-United States. Baye bafikelela ekulinganeni okutsha okusondeleyo kwinyani yedatha, kwaye yiloo nto umyinge woxinaniso lwekhephu elitsha lisezantsi kancinci, ngoko imilimitha enye yemvula ilingana neesentimitha ezisisi-1,3 zekhephu.

Ayisiyondlela imbi, kodwa ayipheleli apho, njengoko isebenza kuphela kwikhephu elitsha. Emva kokuba ikhephu liyekile ukuwa, i-mantle ingena kwinguqu ekhawulezayo, eguqulela ekunyukeni ngokuthe ngcembe kwi-inxinano yekhephu efakwe, zombini ngenxa yokuxinwa ngobunzima bayo kwaye ngenxa yotshintsho lwamva nje lwe-morphological. Ikhephu, ukusuka phezulu. Ukuxinana kwekhephu kukhula ngokuhamba kwexesha, ngoko ukuba besinokuqikelela amanzi alingana nekhephu ngokulinganisa ubukhulu bomaleko wekhephu. ezidipozithwe iiyure okanye iintsuku, ezi reshiyo aziyi kuba 10:1 okanye 13:1. Inokuthi ithathwe njengesebenzayo kwikhephu elitsha (njengoqikelelo lokuqala).

ikhephu elingakanani ubunzima

ikhephu

Xa kunetha imvula, amathafa akufuneki axhase onke amanzi anyukayo nawayo, ekubeni amanzi esiya kwimibhobho yogutyulo. Ikhephu liqokelelana, nangona kunjalo, ngoko ke isakhiwo kufuneka sixhase ubunzima obungenakubalwa. Akukho ziqwenga zibini ezifanayo. Ezinye zikhulu kunabanye. Ukongeza, ezinye zinobunzima obukhulu kunabanye ngokuxhomekeke kubushushu kunye neemeko zokufuma kwemvula.

Ke, iintsimbi zaziwa kuphela ngoqikelelo olusekwe kwimifuniselo. Ngaloo ndlela, imimiselo yokwakha esisiseko ibonisa ukuba iyahluka ngokwemeko yekhephu: 120 kg/m3 kwikhephu elitsha, 200 kg/m3 ngekhephu elityumkileyo okanye elimanzi., kunye ne-400 kg/m3 yekhephu elixutywe nesichotho.

Ukuxinana kwekhephu kunye nobunzima obuxhaswa ngamathafa

Iibhalkhoni kunye neepatio zihlala zakhiwe ngemithwalo eyahlukeneyo engqondweni, kubandakanywa nekhephu, ngoko ke ukwakhiwa kwekhephu akufanele kube yingxaki. Nangona kunjalo, ezinye izakhiwo ezibuthathaka zinokuba yingxaki. Ukugqithiswa kwekhephu ukuba isakhiwo kufuneka sixhase kumphezulu othe tye ovezwe kwizinto kuya kuxhomekeka kwindawo ephakamileyo apho abantu bakhona.

Ngaloo ndlela, ubuncinane kufuneka uthwale indawo yi-40 kg/m2 ebekwe ukusuka kwi-0 ukuya kwi-200 yeemitha zokuphakama ngenxa yokuba ikhephu linokuba nekhephu kumphakamo wolwandle., intsonkothe ​​njengoko isenokubonakala. Ukususela kwi-201 ukuya kwi-400 yeemitha, umthwalo wekhephu kufuneka ube ubuncinane ubuncinane be-50 kg / m2, kwaye ukusuka kwi-401 ukuya kwi-600, i-60 kg / m2. Ukusuka apha, yandisa nge-20 kg/m2 kwi-200 yeemitha nganye ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle.

Ukusuka kwi-1.200 yeemitha ukuphakama, ukugqithiswa kuya kuba ukuphakama okwahlulahlulwe ngo-10. Ngoko, umzekelo, indlu eyakhiwe kwindawo ephakamileyo ye-3.000 yeemitha kufuneka ixhase ubunzima be-300 kg / m2.

Kuphahla oluthambekileyo kubalwa okufanayo. Uphahla olunethambeka elingaphezu kwama-60 degrees, umthwalo wekhephu phezu komhlaba awukho, ekubeni ikhephu liqikelelwa ukuba liyi-slippery. Kwimithambeka ephantsi, ubunzima okufuneka buxhaswe buhambelana nokuphakama kwedolophu Imveliso yomthwalo kunye ne-cosine ye-angle yephahla.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuxinana kwekhephu kunye nendlela elichaphazela ngayo abantu.


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