ulwandle lasemediterranean

Impucuko yamaGrike

El ulwandle lasemediterranean lolunye lolwandle olwenza uLwandlekazi lweAtlantic. Ime kwingingqi ejoyina emazantsi eYurophu, kwintshona yeAsia nakumantla eAfrika. Kuthathelwa ingqalelo ulwandle olunembali ebaluleke kakhulu kwimpucuko yonke yasentshona kuba yayiyindawo apho kuphuhliswe khona iinkcubeko ezininzi. Ithathelwa ingqalelo njengolwandle lwesibini ngobukhulu ngaphakathi emhlabeni, ngasemva kweCaribbean.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ngazo zonke iimpawu, uqeqesho kunye nokubaluleka koLwandle lweMeditera.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Ulwandle lweMeditera

Olu lwandle lunamanzi amaninzi kwaye lumele i-1% yawo onke amanzi olwandle emhlabeni. Umthamo wamanzi of 3.735.000 cubic km kwaye ubunzulu avareji 1430 yeemitha. Ubude bayo ziikhilomitha ezingama-3860 kwaye inendawo eyi-2.5 yezigidi zeekhilomitha ezizikwere. Lonke eli nani lamanzi lenza ukuba kuhlanjwe iipeninsula ezi-3 zasemazantsi eYurophu. Ezi peninsula yi-Iberia, i-Italic kunye neBalkan. Ikwahlamba usingasiqithi waseAsia owaziwa ngegama leAnatolia.

Igama loLwandle lweMeditera livela kumaRoma amandulo. Buya ngoko Bendimazi njengo "Mare nostrum" okanye "ulwandle lwethu." Igama leMeditera livela kwisiLatin Medi terraneum oko kuthethwa embindini womhlaba. Eli gama libangelwa yimvelaphi yoluntu eyathiya igama kuba besazi kuphela umhlaba ojikeleze olu lwandle. Oku kwabenza bajonga uLwandle lweMeditera njengeziko lehlabathi. Ukususela kumaxesha amandulo, amaGrike wanika eli gama ulwandle kude kube namhlanje.

I-Extremar idityaniswe kuLwandlekazi lweAtlantic ngeStrait yaseGibraltar. Ime phakathi komazantsi eYurophu, kuMntla Afrika kunye nonxweme olusentshona lweMpuma Mpuma. I-Atlantic Ocean ayisiyonxibelelwano kuphela, kodwa ikwanayo idityaniswe kuLwandle oluMnyama yiBosphorus kunye neDardanelles Straits. Olunye unxibelelwano lwayo luLwandle Olubomvu. Idibanisa ngeSuez Canal.

Amacandelo oLwandle lweMeditera

Kukho uluhlu olude lweelwandle ezincinci apho uLwandle lweMeditera lwahlulahlulwe khona. Ngamnye uhambelana neendawo ezithile okanye iindawo ezithile apho iimpawu, nokuba kungenxa yezityalo, izilwanyana okanye i-geology, ziguquka. Siza kudwelisa uluhlu lwamacandelo oLwandle lweMeditera:

  • Ulwandle iAlboran, phakathi kweSpain neMorocco.
  • Mar menor, empuma-mpuma yeSpain.
  • ILa Mar Chica emantla eMorocco.
  • Ulwandle iAdriatic, phakathi konxweme lwaseItali kunye nonxweme lwaseSlovenia, eCroatia, eBosnia naseMontenegro.
  • Ulwandle i-Ionia, phakathi konxweme lwase-Italiya, iGrisi neAlbania.
  • ULwandle lwaseLibya eTunisia.
  • Ulwandle lwaseKilikiya phakathi kweTurkey neSipro.
  • ULwandle iLevantine, kunxweme lwase-Egypt, Lebanon, Cyprus, Israel, Syria nase Turkey.
  • Ulwandle lwaseLigurian, phakathi kweCorsica neLiguria.
  • Ulwandle iTyrrhenian, phakathi konxweme olusempuma lweSardinia, usingasiqithi wase-Italiya kunye nonxweme olusemantla eSicilian.
  • Ulwandle iBalearic phakathi konxweme olusempuma lweIberia Peninsula kunye nesiqithi saseSardinia.
  • Ulwandle iAegean, phakathi kweGrisi neTurkey.

Ubume kunye nemvelaphi

ulwandle lasemediterranean

Emva kokwahlulwa kwelizwekazi eliphambili elaziwa njengePangea, kwavulwa indawo phakathi kweYurophu, iAfrika noMbindi Mpuma. Ngelo xesha uLwandle lweMeditera lwalunxibelelene noLwandlekazi lweAtlantic kude kube malunga neminyaka ezizigidi ezi-6 eyadlulayo ngethuba lobunzima betyuwa kaMesiya. Ngeli xesha ulwandle lwalomile kakhulu kuba lwalunqamkile kulwandlekazi olukhulu. Oku kubangele ukuveliswa kwamanzi aseleyo ngaphandle kokubakho koncedo oluya kuthi lube negalelo kumanzi amatsha elwandle.

Kungenzeka ukuba yayiqhubeka nokulahleka kwamanzi, kodwa ukhukuliseko lomhlaba oluqhubekayo lwenza umjelo omalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-250 ubude kwaye amanzi avela elwandle aqala ukuhamba ngokungathi ngumkhukula. Izazinzulu zikholelwa ukuba ukuvulwa okwenziwe ngokwenza ingxangxasi malunga neekhilomitha ezi-2 ububanzi kukwazile ukugcwalisa uLwandle lweMeditera luphela kwisithuba esimalunga neminyaka emibini. Le mpophoma kunye nezikhukula zale ndawo iphela ziguqule ukuma komhlaba. Le yindlela eyenzeka ngayo uLwandle lweMeditera njengoko siyazi namhlanje.

Ngokubhekisele kwimozulu, siyabona ukuba ehlotyeni kufudumele, komile kwaye kuzolile. Ayilulo ulwandle olunesiphithiphithi esininzi kakhulu kwindlela yokuhamba kwaye bathanda ukuba nehlobo elinamaxesha onyaka. Ummandla wonke ufumana umoya omtsha ovela kwiindawo eziphakathi kweentaba zeendawo zaseYurophu. Le mimoya yahlukile kwimimoya efudumeleyo evela emathafeni kwaye yeyase-Afrika kwaye inyusa isantya sonyuka kolophu kwamanzi ngeenyanga ezifudumeleyo.

Konke oku kuvelisa amanzi anomlinganiselo ophezulu wetyuwa kunye nomoya ococekileyo. Sinokubuthatha ubusika njengobushushu kodwa sinomgangatho ophakathi. Ngokubanzi sifumana imimoya eshushu, eyomileyo kunye nasekwindla kunye nemithombo ihlala iguquka kwaye inxulunyaniswa nemvula.

Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zoLwandle lweMeditera

Ngokubhekisele kwizinto eziphilayo ezihlala kulo mhlaba, sineengxaki ezinzulu zokusingqongileyo. Kwaye uLwandle lweMeditera luthathwa njengenye yezona lwandle zingcolisekileyo emhlabeni. Emva kwamanzi ase-Australia, amaTshayina kunye namaJapan, uLwandle lweMeditera lolunye lolwandle, iyantlukwano enkulu yebhayiloji ngaphandle kokuphakama konxweme.

Namhlanje I-17.000 yeentlobo zichaziwe, ze-4% yazo zivela kwezinye iilwandle, ke zithathwa njengezilwanyana ezingenelelayo. Uninzi lwezilwanyana kunye neentlobo zezityalo zigxile kweyona mimandla inzulu kwiindawo ezikufutshane neStrait yaseGibraltar. Apha sifumana uLwandle iAlboran, lonke unxweme lwaseAfrika nolweSpanish kunye nomntla weAdriatic kunye neAegean Seas.

Olu lwandle luthathwa njenge enye yezona zinto zingcoliswe kakhulu emhlabeni njengoko iqulethe ubukho obuphezulu be-hydrocarbon kunye ne-microplastics. Ezi zinto zimbini zisisongelo esinamandla kubume bendalo bezityalo nezilwanyana. Ikwanokudityaniswa nemingcipheko efumaneka kulobalo olugqithisileyo nakwiinqanawa zemithwalo ezigqithisileyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi ngoLwandle lweMeditera.


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