Ukwaliwa kukufuma

Ukuthimla

Ukwalana nokufuma luhlobo olungaphantsi nolulo lwendlela yokuphefumla ephezulu nasezantsi ebangelwa kukuphefumla intsholongwane yomngundo esemoyeni kwaye ifuna ukufuma okuphezulu ukuze iphile kwaye ivelise kwakhona. Bonke abantu bavezwa ngundo, kodwa abanye abantu banempendulo engafanelekanga kumajoni abo omzimba, ebonakala njengeempawu zokuphefumla. I ukwalana nokufuma Yimbangela yeengxaki ezininzi zokuphefumla, ezichaphazela kakhulu abantwana kunye nabantu abadala. Bangoyena nobangela wesithathu oxhaphakileyo wesifo sokuphefumla kwaye uninzi lwabantu luyadizwa unyaka wonke.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba zeziphi iimpawu eziphambili zokungalungi kumswakama, indlela yokuthintela kwaye yeyiphi imiba ekufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo.

Yintoni amakhowa?

amakhowa

Ngokubanzi, sithetha ngokutshintshanayo ngefungi kunye namakhowa, kwaye sikholelwa ukuba kukho iindidi ezimbini: ezidliwayo kunye netyhefu. Nangona kunjalo, iifungi zizinto ezikhethekileyo kunye neentlobo ezahlukeneyo zezinto eziphilayo, ngelixa amakhowa ziziqhamo nje okanye imizimba yeziqhamo zomngundo othile. Ukuba sithelekisa nezityalo, umngundo ngumthi kwaye umngundo sisiqhamo sawo.

Iifungus liqela lezinto eziphilayo ezahlukahlukeneyo nezinohlelo oluntsonkothileyo olulawulwa luphando lwezenzululwazi olubizwa ngokuba yimycology. Singabonisa uluhlu lweempawu eziqhelekileyo kwezi zinto ziphilayo:

  • Iiseli zabo zinenucleus, apho zifumaneka khona iichromosomes, oko kukuthi, ziieukaryotes.
  • Nangona ezinye iintlobo, ezifana negwele, zinenucleus enye, zidla ngokuba ziinyukliya ezininzi.
  • Ngamanye amaxesha umzimba, obizwa ngokuba yi-thallus, u-unicellular kunye neenuclei ezininzi; ngamanye amaxesha, yahlulahlulwe kwiiseli ezininzi (hyphae), ezinefilamentous kwaye zibizwa ngokuba yi-mycelium.
  • Iintsholongwane zingenazo iindonga (zingenanto) okanye zenziwe nge-chitin okanye i-cellulose.
  • Zivelisa kwakhona ngembewu (njenge-algae), enokuthi imile okanye ihambe, isondo okanye i-asexual. Ubungakanani bazo buphakathi kwe-2-3 µm kunye ne-500 µm, kunye ne-avareji ye-2-10 µm. Kwiimeko ezininzi, i-spores iveliswa nge-microscopically, nangona kwezinye oku akunjalo. Enyanisweni, njengoko kukhankanyiwe ngasentla, i-fungi ayikho enye into ngaphandle kwamaqonga okusasaza i-spores kwindawo.
  • Ngokungafaniyo nezityalo, azinayo i<em>chlorophyll kwaye zitya ngokufunxa izondlo ezivela kwindalo esingqongileyo.
  • Zimalunga nama-500.000 iintlobo zefungi ezaziwayo, nangona kusenokubakho phakathi kwesigidi esi-1 nesi-1,5 kubo.
  • Uninzi lwefungi yi-saprophytic kwaye iphula izinto ezifileyo. Amawaka abangela izifo ze-parasitic kunye nezityalo, ezininzi zeentlobo zibangela ukusuleleka komntu (izifo zefungal), kwaye zimbalwa (mhlawumbi zingaphantsi kwama-50) zibangela izifo ezibangelwa yi-allergies. Kuzo zonke iimpawu ezichazwe, ezi microbes okwangoku zibhekwa ngokusondeleyo kwizilwanyana (izilwanyana) kunezityalo (izityalo), nangona zihlelwe kubukumkani obuhlukeneyo obubizwa ngokuba yifungi.

Iindawo apho unokwalana nokufuma

ukwaliwa kukufuma ekhaya

Ngaphandle kwendlu

  • amagqabi abolileyo (ihlathi, i-greenhouse, umgquba)
  • Amadlelo, ingca, ingca, iindiza, iisiriyeli nomgubo (ukucheba, ukucheba, ukuvuna nokusebenza koosheyi, kwizitali, kwiindawo zokusila, kwiindawo zokubhaka)
  • Uthuli olunothuli

Ngaphakathi endlini

  • Indlu yasehlotyeni, ivaliwe phantse unyaka wonke
  • I-cellar emanzi okanye i-cellar
  • igumbi lokuhlambela elingenamoya kakuhle
  • Wallpaper kunye nefrize kwiindonga ezimanzi
  • Amabala amanzi (amabala amnyama) eludongeni
  • Izakhelo zeefestile ezinokujiya okubonakalayo
  • Izinto ezilukiweyo zokufuma
  • ukutya okugciniweyo
  • Izinto zokuthambisa kunye neenkqubo zokupholisa umoya

Imozulu efumileyo ithanda ukukhula komngundo, ngelixa imozulu enelanga, enomoya ithanda ukusasazeka kwembewu; ikhephu linciphisa kakhulu zombini izinto. Kwiimozulu ezishushu nezifumileyo, iifungi zikhona ngobuninzi unyaka wonke. Kwiingingqi ezinemozulu epholileyo, iimbewu zokungunda zifikelela kwezona ndawo ziphezulu kuzo ekupheleni kwehlobo.

Ukuxinwa kwe-spores emoyeni kuyahluka ngokubanzi (200-1.000.000 / m3 yomoya); inokodlula umlinganiselo womungu osemoyeni phakathi kwamaxesha ali-100 ne-1000, kuxhomekeke kakhulu kubushushu, ukufuma, kunye neemeko zokuhamba komoya.

Ubalo lwe-spore ngokubanzi lusezantsi ngaphakathi ngaphakathi kunangaphandle. Iimbewu zendlu zivela kwi-foci enokwenzeka yokukhula kwangaphandle nangaphakathi. Ekubeni i-fungi iyakwazi ukubola, ukuthotywa kunye nokusebenzisa i-cellulose, isitashi kunye ne-organic matter, ubukho bazo buthanda ukukhula kwabo (iishedi, izitali, iindawo zokugcina izityalo, iisilo, iindawo zokugcina ukutya, njl.).

Ngaphakathi, apho ukufuma kuyeyona ndlela iphambili yokukhula kwefungal, igama elithi ukunyakama kokwaliwa lihlala lisetyenziswa. Njengomthetho jikelele, Izigulana ezafunyaniswa zinokwalana nokungunda kufuneka zicetyiswe ukuba ziphephe zonke iindawo ezivaliweyo apho unokuva khona ivumba eliqhelekileyo lokuqubuda.

Iifungus ezikhula kwi-humidifiers okanye izihlungi ze-air conditioning system zinokusasazeka lula kuyo yonke indlu kunye nesakhiwo, yingakho zibhekwa njengenye yezizathu eziphambili ze-syndrome yesakhiwo esigulayo, nangona kungcono ukubizwa ngokuba yi-sick building syndrome egulayo.

Indlela yokufumanisa ukwaliwa nokufuma

ukwalana nokufuma

Ukuba sihlala kwindawo apho ukufuma okanye ukungunda kufumba, sinokuba ne-allergies kule ndawo. Ukufumanisa ukuba oku kunjalo, ukujonga lelona qabane lilungileyo. Ukuba ufumana ezi mpawu zilandelayo ngalo lonke ixesha ungena kwigumbi elinomswakama ophezulu, unokuba nokwaliwa ngundo:

  • Piimpumlo ezirhawuzelelwa namehlo
  • Ububomvu bamehlo kunye/okanye impumlo
  • Ukuxinana kwempumlo
  • Iinyembezi
  • Ukuthimla rhoqo nangokuqhubekayo kwezinye iimeko

Ngenxa yokuba ukwaliwa nokufuma akusoloko kulula ukukuphepha kuba asiyi kuba kwindawo esinokuyilawula ngalo lonke ixesha, kubalulekile ukubonana nogqirha ukuze aqinisekise ukuxilongwa kwaye ufumane unyango olucetyiswayo. Oku kubaluleke ngakumbi xa sityelela iindawo okanye iindawo ezinomswakama ophezulu.

Kukho izinto ezimbalwa onokuthi uzenze ekhaya ukukunceda ukuba uthintele ngokufanelekileyo i-allergies yokufuma:

  • Faka izinto zokukhupha amanzi kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo ekhayeni lakhoOku kuya kukunceda ukulawula ukufuma kwindawo okuyo.
  • Ngalo lonke ixesha gcina iindawo ezithanda ukufuma, njengendawo yokuhlambela okanye umgangatho ongaphantsi wekhaya lakho, zinempepho yokuphefumla.
  • Yenza ukugcinwa okufanelekileyo kwe-air conditioning kunye nokufudumala yekhaya lakho, ngakumbi ukucocwa kwezihluzi ukuphepha ukuqokelelana kwamasuntswana anokubangela ukwalana.
  • Kungcono ukuphepha ukukhulisa izityalo ngaphakathi kwindlu. Ukuba unazo, kubalulekile ukunqanda ukungunda ukuba zenze amagqabi kunye neziqu zabo, njengoko zinokubangela ukungezwani komzimba.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokungahambisani nokufuma kunye neempawu zayo.


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