UBlaise Pascal

uBlaise pascal

Namhlanje siza kuthetha ngomnye wamadoda okhe wabona kunzima ukuba abe yingqondi eyaziwayo kuwo onke amadoda abalulekileyo kwimbali. Imalunga ne UBlaise Pascal. Wayengumbalo wemathematics, ifiziksi, ifilosofi, isayensi yebhayoloji, isimilo sokuziphatha kunye nokuphikisana. Nangona kungekho namnye owakhe wakwazi ukuxoxa ngempumelelo yakhe enkulu, bekuyindleko enkulu kuye ukwamkelwa njengengcali eyaziwayo. Uye wenza igalelo kwinzululwazi nakuluntu ngokubanzi. Uninzi lwamabinzana akhe njengokucinga okuhle asekhona kuluntu lwethu namhlanje.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuba likuxelele yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nebhayiloji kunye nemisebenzi kaBlaise Pascal.

UBlaise Pascal Ubomi

Isazi semathematics kunye nokucinga

Uphuhliso lwezenzululwazi lwenze ukuba uBlaise Pascal adume njengengcali yezibalo, kodwa wazifihla ixesha elide iingcinga zakhe, kwaye ezi ngcinga zibandakanya zonke iingxaki ezinokubakho. Ngethamsanqa, imbali ikwazile ukubuyela kwimeko yesiqhelo. UPascal wayeyindoda yakudala ngexesha lakhe, xa kuthelekiswa URené Descartes wakhe wangoku, inversion emnyama nengacwangciswanga.

U-Blaise Pascal wazalwa nge-19 kaJuni, 1623 eClermont Ferrand, eFrance, kwaye wayengowosapho olunamava aphantsi. Ukongeza ku-Bryce kunye nabazali bakhe, usapho lwalunodadewabo uGilbert (umbhali ngobomi bakhe bokuqala) kunye noJacqueline omncinci, kwaye bazinzisa ubudlelwane obusondeleyo kunye naye. Ingakumbi ebuntwaneni bakhe, impilo kaPascal ibonakaliswa buthathaka emzimbeni.

Phambi kokuba abe neminyaka emibini ubudala, wayesele enesifo esasibangela izifo zamathumbu kunye ne-atrophy yemisipha, kwaye kule minyaka idlulileyo waba ne-phobias engaqhelekanga (njengokunganyamezeli kwigumbi lokuhlambela okanye ukubona abazali bakhe begona), nto leyo eyambangela ukuba ahlaselwe luvalo. Ezi meko zabonakala ngathi ziyanyamalala kamva, kodwa Intloko, uxinzelelo kunye neentlungu ziyaqhubeka ukubakhona kwaye ziya kuchaphazela ubomi bakhe kunye nefilosofi.

Wanikwa imfundo ngononophelo ukuze azive ekwazi ukufezekisa zonke iinjongo zakhe. Wafumana ukufundwa kwezakudala zamaGrike nezesiLatin kunye nemibhalo yamalungelo amakhulu, kwaye utata wakhe waphawula ukwahlula phakathi kwemibuzo yesayensi kunye nenkolo.

Amandla kaBlaise Pascal

blaise pascal ukupeyinta

UBlaise Pascal waqala ukubonisa ezinye izikhombisi zengqondo yakhe emangalisayo ikakhulu kwicandelo lemathematics. Xa wayeneminyaka eli-11 kuphela ubudala, wadibana nesindululo sama-32 kwincwadi kaEuclid ethi Elements, nesinika umzekelo omhle wobuchule bakhe bokuqikelela. Wayesayina inani lakhe ngokwenyani.

Kodwa umsebenzi wakhe ayikhawulelwanga ithiyori. Ukunceda utata wakhe, owayengumqokeleli werhafu kwaye efuna ukubalwa okuninzi, wavelisa "umatshini wearithmetic" eneminyaka eli-19 ubudala: ikhalityhuleyitha. Ukubakho koku kungqubana kwasasazeka ngokulinganayo ngo-1642 kwaza kwabonakala kwangoko.

Ngo-1647, isiganeko esingokwembali senzeka: Ekugqibeleni uPascal noDescartes badibana. Ngoko nangoko bathiyana. Kwincwadi yakhe enkulu yefilosofi "Ingqondo", uPascal wabhekisa kutata "wamagama eMethodoloji" "njengongenamsebenzi nengaqinisekanga", ngelixa uDescartes ewujonga umsebenzi kaClermont Ferrand "ungenanto entlokweni yakhe." Akukho namnye". Ngelo xesha, ubukho bethuba yayisesinye sezihloko ezishushu kwezenzululwazi, ikakhulu kuba yayihlala iphikwa: Kwenzeka njani ukuba "into" ibekho "kwinto engekho"?

Ngonyaka ka-1648 uPascal waqala ulingo lwakhe ecacisa injongo ecace gca: ukubonisa ukuba le nto siyibiza ngokuba "akukho nto" inyani "yinto", ukuba yingxaki yomzimba, ayisiyongcinga nje kwaphela. Ubungqina buvela kwincwadi yakhe. Ubudlelwane phakathi koluvavanyo olukhulu lokulingana phakathi kolwelo, echaza ukuba uxinzelelo lomoya ngoyena nobangela we "uloyiko lwe-vacuum" lwezinto, yayiyenye yeendlela zelo xesha. Ubunzima bakho kunye noxinzelelo lomoya. U-Pascal ngokwakhe wayezidla ngeziphumo kwaye wachaza umsebenzi wakhe "njengeyona nto ithathe isigqibo kuyo yonke into enokwenziwa ngalo mbandela."

Elinye lamagalelo amakhulu kwimathematics nguBlaise Pascal yayiyinto yokubala yamathuba.

Ixesha lefilosofi kunye nenkolo

ukumelwa kobomi bepascal

Ngelo xesha kwaqala inqanaba lesibini lobomi bukaPascal, eshiya imathematics kunye nesayensi ecaleni, kwaye echitha amandla ngakumbi kwifilosofi. Washiya uphando lwakhe oluqhubekayo, waba nomdla ngakumbi kwi-theology, kwaye wabhala imisebenzi emininzi. U-Pascal unomdla wokusebenzisa inkolo kunye nenkolelo njengezixhobo eziphambili zokufumana izimvo kubunzulu bomphefumlo.

Kungelo xesha ke awathi waqalisa ukuqokelela amaxwebhu, awayewabonakalisa kwithiyori yakhe. Umsebenzi awuzange ugqitywe okanye upapashwe, wawuza kuprintwa ngesihloko esithi "Iingcinga" ngexesha lokufa kwakhe, kwaye ngowona msebenzi ubalulekileyo wentanda-bulumko anayo.

Malunga no-1656 uJansenist uAntonie Arnaud, owayetyholwa ngokuba ngumCalvin, wanceda umhlobo wakhe. Ndingambhalela into eyaziwa njenge Iileta zephondo, eya kuthi ekugqibeleni ibe yenye yezona zinto zibalaseleyo kwimisebenzi yoncwadi lwesiFrentshi. Iileta zenza umdla omkhulu eFrance kuba yayikokokuqala ukuba inkolo kunye nefilosofi zikhutshwe kumathala eencwadi naseziklasini zanikwa abantu ngolwimi lwabo olulula. U-Pascal utsala umdla woluntu kwimibuzo ngokubaluleka kwengqondo.

Ilifa

U-Blaise Pascal umele iingcinga ezidibanisa ukholo kunye nesayensi, uqikelelo kunye novavanyo olungqongqo. Ukuqwalaselwa kwakhe kugxile kuyo yonke imimandla yolwazi: imathematics, theology, bulumko, njl. Lonke ulwazi lwaluluncedo kuye.

Ngokungafaniyo nabanye abantu abasekele lonke ulwazi lomntu kwisizathu, akazange afune ukuyishiya inxenye yeemvakalelo, kwaye ukukhusela ulwazi kufuneka kube kukudibana okugqibeleleyo kwesizathu nentliziyo. NjengoSchopenhauer kamva, watyhola uluntu ngokungakhange ayiqonde inyani malunga nokuwohloka kokuziphatha, okwenza ukuba kube luxanduva lwayo. Ke ngoko, kufuneka simkhumbule kwaye simbeka kwindawo ehloniphekileyo. Umgxeki / umxhasi wakhe uFriedrich Nietzsche wamnika imbeko: «UPascal, endimthandayo, undifundise izinto ezingapheliyo. Nguye kuphela umKristu osengqiqweni kwimbali ”.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi ngembali kunye nebhayiloji kaBlaise Pascal


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