Uluhlu lwamagama egama Taphonomy

taphonomy

La taphonomy Luqeqesho olukule paleontology. Luphetheyo ukufunda zonke iinkqubo ezenzekileyo ngaphambili, ngexesha nasemva kokungcwatywa komzimba kwindawo yezinto zakudala. Olu qeqesho lunokunika ulwazi oluninzi malunga neenkqubo ezichaphazela amathambo kwirekhodi yefosili.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga ne-taphonomy kunye nokubaluleka kwayo kokufumana ulwazi kwixesha elidlulileyo.

Ukufundwa kwetafonomy

taphonomy kunye nokubaluleka

Imvelaphi yolu qeqesho yanikezelwa nguIvan A. Efremov ngo-1940. Luqeqesho lwenzululwazi olufuna ukufunda ukuba kwenzeka ntoni ngentsalela yendalo ukusuka kwindalo ephilayo ukuya kwi-lithosphere. I-Taphonomy kwisiGrike ithetha imithetho yokungcwaba. Oku kwavela ngenxa yenkxalabo awayenayo u-Efremov xa kufikelelwa ekutolikeni iimpazamo ezithile ezazikwifosili ngenxa yesenzo seepeaeoecological agents.

Ukusukela ekudalweni kolu qeqesho lwenzululwazi, iinjongo, iindlela kunye neendlela zokufunda bezisanda. Oku kungenxa yokuba kuphakame imibuzo emitsha malunga neenkqubo ze-fossilisation kunye nolondolozo lweempawu ze-paleobiological. Kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba iintsalela zamathambo nazo ziphantsi kwesenzo seentsholongwane kunye nokuziphatha kwazo ezahlukeneyo.

Iinkqubo zeTafonomic

Njengoko kulindelwe, iinkqubo ezenzeka kwiTaphonomy kufuneka zihlelwe. Ezi nkqubo zihlelwe ngokwamaqela amabini aphambili:

  • Iinkqubo zebhayostratinomic
  • Iinkqubo zeFossyldiagenetic

Ngombulelo kweli candelo leenkqubo ezahlukeneyo ezifundwa kwiTaphonomy, kunokugxininiswa eziyinkqubo kunye neearhente ezisebenza kwintsalela yezinto eziphilayo kwimixholo emibini eyahlukileyo. Kwelinye icala, sinecala lokuhlala ngaphezulu kwelinye icala, isiseko esiphantsi. Siza kuhlalutya ngokweenkcukacha ezizezinye zeenkqubo ezimbini ezahlulwe ngokubanzi.

Iinkqubo zebhayostratinomic

Ngabo bafumana amava ngaphambi kokuba angcwatywe. Oko kukuthi, ii-microorganisms zisebenza kwizidumbu ukuze zikwazi ukubola izinto eziphilayo. Nje ukuba iintsalela zishiyeke, ziyangcwatywa ngokuhamba kwexesha. Nje ukuba itshixiwe, inika indlela kwi-tafocenosis. I-Tafocenosis ayikho enye into ngaphandle kweseti yezinto eziphilayo ezingcwatyelwe kunye. Indawo yonke ehlala ezi zinto zingcwatyiweyo ibizwa ngokuba yitafotope.

Isigaba apho izinto zingcwatywa khona zibizwa ngokuba kulondolozo olwahlukileyo. Eli nqanaba liqukethe zonke iinkqubo, iiarhente kunye notshintsho olungenelele emathanjeni ngexesha lokungcwatywa. Ezi arhente kunye neenkqubo zinokuguqula ulwakhiwo lwangaphakathi nolwangaphandle lwamathambo ngaphambi kokungcwatywa.

Ngelishwa, kwiinkqubo ze-biostratinomic kulapho eyona ilahleko inkulu yolwazi evela kwingxelo yefosili yenzeka khona. Kungenxa yokuba izinto eziphilayo zinenani eliphezulu lezinto eziphilayo ezichithwa ngokulula emva kokufa. Kuphela kukwiimeko ezizodwa apho inxenye yalo mba wolondolozo inokugcinwa.

Gcina ukhumbula ukuba into efileyo isekhona kwiwebhu yokutya. Kungenxa yokuba kukho izilwanyana ezininzi, isikhunta kunye neebhaktheriya ezingabahlaseli.. Abaqhekezi zizinto eziphilayo ezinoxanduva lokususa into efileyo. Zezona zinto zibaluleke kakhulu kwindalo kunye nolungelelwaniso lwendalo. Ngesi sizathu, kuba isidumbu sendalo sikwi-trophic web, ulwazi oluninzi lunokulahleka ukusukela oko kuncitshisiwe izinto eziphilayo.

Ezi nkqubo zahlulwe zangamanqaku ama-4:

  • Ukuziqhelanisa kwakhona: yinkqubo enxulumene nokuthuthwa kwamathambo. Ngexesha lale nkqubo kubaluleke kakhulu kubaxhamli, kuba banokubamba ixhoba labo, balityumze. Kukho amanye amadama angonakalanga kangako.
  • Ukwahlukana: yinkqubo eyenzekayo kwizinto eziphilayo ezinamathambo ezinto ezahlukeneyo. Iziphumo zale nkqubo kukwahlukana kwamalungu ahlukeneyo omzimba omnye.
  • Ukuqhekeka: Yinkqubo ebandakanya konke ukwahlukana kwamaqhekeza abe mancinci. Oku kunento yokwenza nesenzo sabaninzi abahluthayo abagqibela ngokutya intsalela yezinto eziphilayo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kumathambo.
  • Umhlwa: igubungela zonke iziphumo ezibangelwa kukungonakali komzimba, kunye nokuchithwa kwemichiza. Sisiphumo esifana noko kwenzeka nakwimozulu yamatye.

Iinkqubo zeFossyldiagenetic

Ezi nkqubo zezo zinamava ezinto ezigcinwa emva komngcwabo wazo. Nje ukuba bakwi-lithosphere, ulondolozo lokwahluka luyenzeka. Kulapha apho kubandakanya khona isenzo seearhente ezahlukeneyo, iinkqubo kunye notshintsho olungenelela kwimicimbi yendalo ngexesha lokungcwaba. Njengakwiinkqubo zangaphambili, ezi zinokutshabalalisa kwaye zilahlekelwe sisixa esikhulu solwazi kunye nezinto ezinokwenzeka.

Ezinye zeenkqubo ezenzekayo zezi Ukhukuliseko lwe-mineralization, i-permineralization, i-neoformism, ukuphinda kwenziwe kwakhona, ukutshintshwa, ukuchithwa okanye ukuxinana. Ezi nkqubo zixhomekeke kwezinye izinto ezinje ngesenzo sokumba izilwanyana ezinjengeentshulube. Kukho nezinye iintsholongwane ezihlala phantsi komhlaba, izinto zekhemikhali zomhlaba ongaphantsi, ifuthe lokuhamba ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi kunye nezinye izinto ezisebenza kwintsalela.

Injongo yeTaphonomy

Nje ukuba siveze zonke iinkqubo ezinokuthi zisebenze kwizinto zomngcwabo, siza kuhlalutya eyona njongo ilandelwa nguTaphonomy. Bajolise kufundo lwamathambo ezilwanyana afunyanwa kwiindawo zezinto zakudala.

Eminye imiba enje ngokuthuthwa kwamathambo iye yaqhubeka nokubaluleka ukuze ifumane ulwazi ngakumbi. Iinkalo zokufundwa kweTaphonomy namhlanje linoxanduva lokuhlalutya imatshi kunye neetreyini ezivela kumathambo. Ezi nyathelo zinokuba nemvelaphi ye-anthropic. Le yindlela onokuthi ufunde ngayo ngendlela ethile yobomi babantu kwixa elidlulileyo kwaye ubalaselise ukufundwa kwamanqaku amathambo okubulala.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi ngeTaphonomy kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.


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