URosalind Franklin

Umvavanyi weDNA

IMachismo ibangele iingxaki ezininzi kwilizwe lezenzululwazi. Omnye wabasetyhini ababalulekileyo kwihlabathi le-biophysics kunye ne-crystallography URosalind Franklin. Imalunga nokufumanisa okwenyani kwe-DNA. Ingxaki kukuba ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, abasetyhini ababezinikele kufundo lwesayensi babengahoywa kwaye bedelelwa ngamaziko.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo malunga noRosalind Franklin kunye nokubaluleka kwakhe kwilizwe lezenzululwazi.

URosalind Franklin ngobomi bakhe

ndlu yesazinzulu

Ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX, nayiphi na inzululwazi eyayingumfazi kwaye yayiza kwenza uphando yahoywa ngokupheleleyo. Ifike kwinqanaba apho bejongelwa phantsi. Amaziko kunye noluntu luphela lwalugwebe uRosalind Franklin nokuba ungaziwa ngokungaziwayo. Phakathi kweyona mpumelelo ibalaseleyo yeli bhinqa sisazinzulu siqaphela ukufunyanwa komfanekiso wokuqala wecala le-B le-hydrated DNA. Oososayensi abathathu bawongwa ngeBhaso likaNobel kwiPhysical and Medicine emva kokufunyanwa kobume beDNA. Into abantu abaninzi abangayaziyo yile Kwiminyaka elishumi ngaphambili uRosalind Franklin wayesele efumene enye ifoto.

Lesi sithombe saziwa njengefoto 51 kwaye sisiqwenga esingundoqo sokwazi yonke into malunga ne-DNA. Lo mfazi wazalelwa kwisithili saseKensington, esiseLondon, ngonyaka we-1920. Utata wakhe wakhathalela ukunika bonke abantwana bakhe eyona mfundo igqwesileyo kwaye oku kwamenza uRosalind wakwazi ukuhlawulisa izifundo zakhe zamabanga aphantsi kunye nezizisekondari kwizikolo zabucala. Ukususela kwintombazana encinci, wazibonakalisa ukuba uyintombazana ekrelekrele kwaye wayenomdla okhethekileyo kumdla wenzululwazi.

Phakathi kwezifundo zikaRosalind Franklin sifumana ubukho bakhe kwizifundo ezininzi zika-Einstein kwaye wayenayo Injongo yokunikela ubomi bakhe kwinkonzo yesayensi. Waqala ukufunda eyunivesithi kwaye waba nomdla kwikhemistri, kwifiziksi nakwimathematics. Ekuqaleni, utata kaRosalind, xa ebona ukuba ufuna ukufunda isayensi, waphikisa elubala. Kwaye kukuba ngexesha apho abasetyhini babengenakho ukuzinikela kuphando. Utata omnye wayefunde isayensi kwaye wafunda isiJamani ukuze azame ukuba sisayensi elungileyo. Ngaphandle koku, wayengakholelwa ukuba intombi yakhe kufuneka izinikezele kuphando.

Ungquzulwano nosapho

URosalind Franklin kunye nezifundo zakhe

Olu ngquzulwano lubangelwe ziindibano zoluntu lwamenza ukuba abe nobunzima obukhulu ekufundeni oko wayekufuna. Uyise kwaye wayecinga ukuba imfundo ibaluleke kakhulu ekukhuleni komntu kunye nenkqubela phambili yoluntu. Ngaphandle kwembambano nosapho, uRosalind Franklin wayenobukrelekrele obuninzi kunye nokuzimisela. Konke oku kongezwa kwinto yokuba abazali bakhe babenenkqubela phambili kwindalo ukwazile ukufundisisa le nto ayifunayo.

Ekugqibeleni wakwazi ukubhalisa kwikholeji yabasetyhini yaseCambridge ngo-1938. Wenza uviwo lokungena kwi-physics nakwi-chemistry kwaye wakwazi ukufunda ezi zifundo. Ukuqhagamshelana kokuqala kukaRosalind Franklin ne-crystallography kwakusenzeka ekufumaneni kweBragg. Kwaboniswa ukuba xa umqadi we-X-ray ugqitha kwiglasi, ishiya uhlobo lwesitrayikhi. Ukuba ufunda le mizila unokubona ukuba injani na imolekyuli yekristale kunye nendlela ezibekwe ngayo iiathom zayo. Enye yeenkqubela phambili akwazi ukuyenza kwihlabathi le-crystallography yayikukusebenzisa ii-X-ray ukufumanisa ulwakhiwo lweekristali. Ukusuka apho, wagqiba kwelokuba aziqhelanise nesifundo kwimilinganiselo emithathu yento eyayincinci kakhulu ngobukhulu.

Imfundo ePhakamileyo yaseRosalind Franklin

URosalind Franklin

Nangona ukugqitywa kwakhe ngo-1941, akazange akwazi ukufumana idigri kuba wayengumfazi. Wayekrelekrele kwaye ngendlela yembuyekezo, kwaye ngamabanga akhe aphezulu afumana iwonga lodidi lwesibini. Le mibala yamqonda ukuba kufanelekile ukuba akwazi ukwenza umsebenzi. Uye wakwazi ukufumana isifundi esincinci sonyaka ukuze akwazi ukuqhubeka nokufunda kwisebe lophando lwezenzululwazi kunye nokufumana ugqirha. Le mfundo yanikezelwa kumfundi weembacu kwiMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi. Oku kungenxa yokuba utata wakhe wamcela ukuba anike le mali umntu omfaneleyo.

Ububele babubangelwa kukuba ngo-1939 usapho lwaseFranklin lwalusondele kakhulu ekubanjweni eNorway okoko iMfazwe yesibini yeHlabathi yayiqalele ekhaya.

Nje ukuba abekwe kwisebe lophando lwesayensi, wayenethamsanqa kakhulu. Kwaye wayenakho ukusebenza nesayikholojisti uRonald Norrish owayenguvulindlela kwi-photochemistry kwaye wafumana iBhaso likaNobel. Ngaphandle kwento yokuba uRosalind Franklin wayenandipha umsebenzi wakhe, wayevuya kakhulu. Unokuhlala ngokuzimeleyo kwindlu eqeshisayo Apho ke wayenokwamkela izihlobo zakhe kwaye onwabele ixesha lakhe lasimahla. Konke oku kwamnceda ukuba azinze ngakumbi emsebenzini wakhe kwaye onwabele ubomi.

Wakwazi ukwamkela umsebenzi kumalahle, awathi aba sisixhobo sokubasa ngokubaluleka okukhulu ukusukela oko sasetyenziswa njengesihluzo kumagumbi egesi. Ndiyakwazi ukuphanda iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zamalahle kwaye ndafaka isandla ekwenzeni imaski efanelekileyo yegesi

Impumelelo yesayensi

Kuyo yonke loo minyaka, bambalwa kakhulu abantu ababenikwa ubugqirha. URosalind Franklin wayengomnye wabo babekwazi ukufumana i-PhD nangona wayengumfazi. Umsebenzi wakhe ekwakhiweni kwekhabhoni kunye negraphite wamnceda ukuba afumane ugqirha kwi-physics nakwi-chemistry. Uye wanika indawo yomsebenzi awayeyinikiwe kwaye wagqiba kwelokuba ashiye iNgilane. Wayekwazi ukuya eFransi kwaye wafumana umsebenzi omkhulu. Enkosi kuAdrienne Weill, umfundi kaMarie Curie, Wayekwazi ukuthetha isiFrentshi kwaye wafunda ngemisebenzi eyahlukeneyo.

Njengoko ubona, abasetyhini baye bakwazi ukufaka isandla kulwazi oluninzi kwisayensi kwaye banceda ukuyiqhubela phambili. Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi ngoRosalind Franklin kunye nebhayiloji yakhe.


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