Kutheni iinkwenkwezi zimenyezela?

iinkwenkwezi esibhakabhakeni

Ngokuqinisekileyo xa ujonga esibhakabhakeni ebusuku unokubona amawaka ezigidi zeenkwenkwezi ezenza isibhakabhaka. Enye yezinto ezinomdla iinkwenkwezi ezinazo, ngokungafaniyo neeplanethi nezinye iisathelayithi, kukuba ziyaqhwanyaza. Oko kukuthi, kubonakala ngathi bayadanyaza ngokuqhubekayo. abantu abaninzi bayazibuza kutheni iinkwenkwezi zimenyezela kwaye iiplanethi azikwenzi.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba kutheni iinkwenkwezi ziqhwanyaza kwaye kutheni zisenza njalo.

kutheni iinkwenkwezi zimenyezela

isibhakabhaka esineenkwenkwezi

Yonke into engaphandle kwe-atmosfera iyaqhwanyaza (ewe, oko kuquka ilanga, inyanga, kunye neeplanethi ezikwisijikelezi-langa sethu). Esi siphumo senzeka xa ukukhanya kwenkwenkwezi kusebenzisana nobuninzi bomoya. Kwimeko yethu, ukuba ubunzima bomoya yi-atmosfera, leyo uzele ziziphithiphithi. Oku kubangela ukuba ukukhanya kuhlale kuhlanjululwa ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo, ukwenzela ukuba ukukhanya okuvela kwenkwenkwezi kube kwindawo enye ukusuka kwindawo yethu yokujonga phezulu, kwaye emva kwee-milliseconds ezimbalwa kubonakala kutshintsha kancinci.

Kutheni singakuboni ukumenyezela kweeplanethi, ilanga nenyanga? Kulula ukuyichaza. Ngenxa yomgama wethu ukusuka kubo (eyona nkwenkwezi ikufutshane, iProxima Centauri, ingaphezu nje kweminyaka emi-4 yokukhanya), ezi nkwenkwezi zibonakala ngathi ziindawo zokukhanya. Ekubeni kuphela indawo yokukhanya ifikelela kwi-atmosfera, inokuchatshazelwa kakhulu sisidubedube emoyeni kwaye ngoko iya kuqhubeka idanyaza. Ukongeza ekubeni sisondele, iiplanethi zivela njengediski (nangona kungekhona kwiliso lenyama), okwenza ukukhanya kuzinze ngakumbi (nangona iNyanga kunye neLanga zikhulu kakhulu, ngoko umphumo awubonakali).

Ezinye iinkwenkwezi zibonakala zitshintsha umbala

kutheni iinkwenkwezi zimenyezela

Ngeentsuku ezithile, malunga ezinzulwini zobusuku, inkwenkwezi eyiquintuple (enye yezona nkwenkwezi ziqaqambileyo esinokuzibona esibhakabhakeni) ingaphezulu komkhathi (kwicala le-N-NE), kodwa vala ngokwaneleyo ukuze kubonakale ukuba ukongeza ukuqhwanyazanayo iyaphela. Kwiintlobo ngeentlobo zemibala (ebomvu, eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, eluhlaza ...). Le yinto eqhelekileyo, ebonwa lula kwiinkwenkwezi ezikufutshane nomkhathi, kodwa ibonwa nakwezinye iinkwenkwezi.

Ingcaciso iyafana nokuqhwanyaza, kodwa songeza ukuba ubungakanani bomoya ekufuneka ukukhanya kuhambe ukuya kuthi mkhulu kakhulu, ngoko ke i-refraction ibonakala ngakumbi, nto leyo eyenza ukuba iinkwenkwezi zibonakale zitshintsha rhoqo umbala. Kwakhona, nangona zingadli ngokuqhwanyaza, iiplanethi nazo zinokukhupha oku kukhanya kutshintshayo ukuba zikufutshane kakhulu elundini.

Ukuphepha njani ukuqhwanyaza

kutheni iinkwenkwezi zimenyezela esibhakabhakeni

Nangona ukuqhwanyaza kweenkwenkwezi kungathethi kuthi kukho isiphazamiso, kwizazi ngeenkwenkwezi izinto zinokutshintsha kakhulu. Sineendawo ezininzi zokujonga phezu komhlaba, kuba ngoko ke kufuneka sikususe oku kugqwethwa ukuze sibone iinkwenkwezi. Ukwenza oku, ezinye zezona teleskopu zihambele phambili eMhlabeni zisebenzisa i-adaptive optics, zijikelezisa izipili zeteleskopu kaninzi ngesekhondi ukuhlawula isiphithiphithi esisemoyeni.

Izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zenza i-laser esibhakabhakeni, zenza inkwenkwezi eyenziweyo ngaphakathi kwendawo yokujonga iteleskopu. Ngoku uyazi ukuba inkwenkwezi eyenziweyo kufuneka ijongeke njani kwaye yintoni umbala, konke okufuneka ukwenze kukulungelelanisa ukuphazamiseka kwesibuko ngepiston ukuphelisa imiphumo yokuphazamiseka kwe-atmospheric. Ayisiyonto isebenzayo njengokuzisa iteleskopu esithubeni, kodwa inexabiso eliphantsi kakhulu kwaye ibonakala ibonelela iimfuno zethu kakuhle.

Olunye ukhetho, njengoko ubonile, kukundulula iteleskopu ngqo kwindawo engaphandle. Ngaphandle kwe-atmosphere yokungenelela, i-flicker iyanyamalala ngokupheleleyo. Mhlawumbi ezona teleskopu zimbini zidumileyo yiHubble kunye neKepler.

Ngobukhulu, i-Hubble incinci kakhulu kuneteleskopu esinayo eMhlabeni (eneneni, imalunga nekota yobukhulu besipili seteleskopu enkulu), kodwa ngaphandle kweziphumo zokugqwetheka kwe-atmospheric, iyakwazi ukuthabatha imifanekiso yeminyele yezigidi ngezigidi zokukhanya - kwiminyaka embalwa. Kufuneka nje ujonge kwelo cala ixesha elide ngokwaneleyo ukuze ufumane ukukhanya kulo.

Kwakhona, ezinye iiteleskopu zinesipili esincinci sesibini esilungisa le siphithiphithi somoya, kodwa oku akuqhelekanga. Oko kukuthi, inkqubo njengoko ndikuxelele, kodwa ukugqwetheka akwenzeki kwisibuko esikhulu, kodwa kwisibuko esincinci esiyinxalenye yesixhobo esisebenzisayo ukubona.

Iinkwenkwezi ziyabutshintsha ubunzulu

Usenokuba ukhe weva ukuba iinkwenkwezi zimenyezela ngenxa yokuba zikhupha ukukhanya okwahlukahlukeneyo. Ngelixa kuyinyani, utshintsho alubonakali kangangokuba lubangele isibhakabhaka ebusuku, kwaye lwenzeka ixesha elide kunemizuzwana embalwa. Enyanisweni, ezinye zezi nkwenkwezi zaziwa ngokuqaqamba nobukhulu obungafaniyo, yaye sizisebenzisa ukuze zisincede sihlolisise indalo iphela. Amaqokobhe enathi: Iinkwenkwezi zimenyezela ngenxa yokuba umoya ojikeleze umhlaba uyagqwetha ukukhanya kwazo ngaphambi kokuba kufikelele kuthi.

Kuba ekude kakhulu, sinokubona kuphela amathontsi amancinane okukhanya, ngoko oku kugqwetheka kuyenzeka, kwaye okukhona usondela elundini, kokukhona kuya kucaca ngakumbi oku kugqwetheka. Kwimeko yeeplanethi, nangona zibonakala zikhulu kwiso lenyama, zibonakala ngathi njengeediski ezincinci zokukhanya, kunye nokukhanya okwaneleyo kufikelela kwi-atmosphere ukwenzela ukuba ukuphazamiseka kokukhanya okubangelwa yi-atmospheric kungabonakali.

Kutheni iinkwenkwezi zimenyezela: umoya

Ukukhanya okushiya inkwenkwezi kwaye kuhamba kude eMhlabeni akugobekanga. Qhuba kumgca othe ngqo. Xa kufuneka idlule kwi-atmosfera, indlela yayo iyatshintsha. Nangona umoya ubonakala elubala, ayingomaleko wokuxinana okufanayo. Amalungu akufutshane kumphezulu axinene ngakumbi kunomaleko ongaphezulu. Ukongeza, umoya ofudumeleyo ukhuphuka emini, ongaphantsi komoya obandayo. Konke oku kubangela ukuba umoya ojikeleze umhlaba ube yigesi ephazamisayo. Siyanyanzelisa, nangona ngokuphandle.

Xa ukukhanya kweenkwenkwezi kuza kufika kuthi, kufuneka kudlule kwiatmosfera. Iyatenxa kancinci ixesha ngalinye idibana neengqimba zomoya ezixineneyo ezahlukeneyo. Iyajikajika xa utshintsha ukusuka kwindawo yoxinaniso ukuya kwenye. Kwaye njalo, ngokuqhubekayo. Ekubeni umoya ushukuma ngokuthe rhoqo, sicinga ukuba umdaniso omncinane owenziwa ziinkwenkwezi nawo awuguquguquki, nto leyo ebonisa ukuba ziyadanyaza. Oku kunxaxha kuncinane nako kunokubangela ukuba zitshintshe umbala, kanye njengokuba ilanga lisenza xa litshona elundini phayaa.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba kutheni iinkwenkwezi ziqhwanyaza kwaye iiplanethi azenzi.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
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