Iminyaka emincinci yomkhenkce

Inani lekhephu lenyukile

Uninzi lwethu luyayazi iminyaka yesiqhelo yomkhenkce eyenzeka kwiplanethi yethu. Nangona kunjalo, namhlanje siza kuthetha nge iminyaka encinci yomkhenkce. Ayisiyonto yenzeka kwihlabathi liphela kodwa lixesha lokuqaqanjelwa ngumkhenkce osezantsi okuphawulwe ngokwandiswa komkhenkce kweli xesha langoku. Kwenzeka phakathi kwenkulungwane ye-13 neye-19, ngakumbi eFrance. Ngamanye amazwe ahlupheke kakhulu kulolu hlobo lwamaqondo okushisa. Le mozulu ibandayo yeza neziphumo ezibi kwaye yabangela ukuba umntu aziqhelanise neemeko zokusingqongileyo ezintsha.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nexesha elincinci lomkhenkce kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

Iminyaka emincinci yomkhenkce

iminyaka encinci yomkhenkce

Eli lixesha lemozulu ebandayo eyenzeka eYurophu nakuMntla Melika ukusukela ngonyaka we-1300 ukuya kowe-1850. Ingqamana nexesha apho amaqondo obushushu ubuncinci obuninzi kwaye i-avareji ibisezantsi kunesiqhelo. EYurophu le nto ikhatshwa zizityalo, indlala kunye neentlekele zendalo. Ayibanga kuphela ukuhla kwemvula ngohlobo lwekhephu, kodwa ikwanciphisile inani lezityalo. Kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba itekhnoloji ekhoyo kule meko ayifani njengoko injalo namhlanje. Okwangoku sinezixhobo ezininzi zokukwazi ukunciphisa iimeko ezimbi esizivezileyo kwezi meko zemozulu.

Isiqalo ngqo sexesha lomkhenkce omncinci asicacanga. Kunzima ukwazi ukuba imozulu iqala nini ukutshintsha kwaye ichaphazele. Sithetha ngemozulu yokuhlanganiswa kwayo yonke idatha efunyenwe ngokuhamba kwexesha kwingingqi. Umzekelo, ukuba siqokelela zonke izinto ezinje ngobushushu, isixa semitha yelanga, ulawulo lomoya, njl. Kwaye siyongeza ngokuhamba kwexesha, siya kuba nemozulu. Ezi mpawu ziyatshintsha unyaka nonyaka kwaye azisoloko zizinzile. Xa sisithi imo yezulu yeyohlobo oluthile, kungenxa yokuba ixesha elininzi iyahambelana namaxabiso ezinto ezihambelana nolu hlobo.

Nangona kunjalo, amaqondo obushushu awahlali azinzile kwaye unyaka nonyaka ayahluka. Ke ngoko, kunzima ukwazi kakuhle ukuba yayikukuqala kwexesha elincinci lomkhenkce. Ngenxa yobunzima bokuqikelela ezi ziqendu zibandayo, umda wobudala beqhwa obuncinci uyahluka phakathi kwezifundo ezinokufunyanwa ngayo.

Izifundo kwi-Ice Age encinci

sebenza kwiminyaka yeqhwa

Izifundo ezenziwa yiLebhu yeLebhu yeGlaciology kunye neGeophysics yeNdawo esingqongileyo yeYunivesithi yaseGrenoble kunye neLebhu yeLebhu yeGlaciology kunye neGeophysics yeNdalo esingqongileyo yeFederal Polytechnic School yaseZurich, zicebisa ukuba ulwandiso lomkhenkce lubangelwe kukunyuka okukhulu kwemvula, kodwa ukwehla okukhulu kumaqondo obushushu.

Ngexesha lale minyaka, ukuqhubela phambili komkhenkce bekubangelwa ikakhulu kukwanda kwe- ngaphezulu kwama-25% ekhephu kwelona xesha libandayo. Ebusika kuyinto eqhelekileyo ukuba kubekho imvula ngendlela yekhephu kwiindawo ezininzi. Nangona kunjalo, kule meko, le mvula yaqala ukwanda ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokuba babekhona kwimimandla apho bekungakhange kubekho khephu ngaphambili.

Ukusukela ukuphela kwe-Ice Age encinci, ukubuyela umva komkhenkce bekuphantse kwaqhubeka. Zonke i-glaciers zilahlekile malunga nesithathu sevolumu yazo iyonke kwaye ubungakanani obuqhelekileyo bancipha ngeesentimitha ezingama-30 ngonyaka ngeli xesha.

Izizathu

incinci iminyaka yobudala bomkhenkce ebantwini

Makhe sibone ukuba zeziphi izizathu ezinokubangela ukuba iqhwa lincinci. Akukho mvumelwano yenzululwazi ngemihla kunye nezizathu ezinokuthi zivelise eli xesha lomkhenkce. Oonobangela abaphambili banokubangelwa sisixa esisezantsi semitha yelanga ewela emhlabeni. Oku kwehla kwemitha yelanga kubangela ukupholisa komphezulu wonke kunye notshintsho kumandla omoya. Ngale ndlela, imvula ngendlela yekhephu yenzeka rhoqo.

Abanye bachaza ukuba imeko yexesha lomkhenkce omncinci ibangelwe kukuqhuma kweentaba-mlilo eziwenze mnyama umoya ngaphezulu. Kwezi meko sithetha ngento efana nale ingasentla kodwa ngesizathu esahlukileyo. Ayisiyiyo kangako imitha yelanga evela elangeni ngokuthe ngqo, kodwa bubumnyama bomoya obangela ukuncitshiswa kwemitha yelanga echaphazela umphezulu womhlaba. Ezinye zezazinzulu ezikhuselayo le mbono ziyangqina ukuba phakathi konyaka we-1275 nowe-1300, apho kwakuqala khona umkhenkce omncinci, Ukuqhuma kwe-4 kwintaba-mlilo kwisithuba seminyaka engamashumi amahlanu kuya kuba noxanduva lwale nto kuba zonke zenzeka ngelo xesha.

Uthuli lwentaba-mlilo lubonakalisa imitha yelanga ngendlela ezinzileyo kwaye inciphisa ubushushu obupheleleyo obufunyenwe ngumhlaba. IZiko leSizwe laseMelika loPhando lweAtmospheric (i-NCAR) liphuhlise imodeli yemozulu yokuvavanya iziphumo zokuqhushumba kwentaba-mlilo, kwisithuba seminyaka engamashumi amahlanu. Iziphumo eziqokelelweyo zolu dubulo lwentaba-mlilo ziyavuma zonke iziphumo zokuqhushumba kwentaba-mlilo. Zonke ezi ziphumo ziya kubakho kwi-Ice Age encinci. Ukukhenkcisa, ukwanda komkhenkce wolwandle, utshintsho kutshintsho lwamanzi, kunye nokwehla kobushushu bezothutho kunxweme lweAtlantiki zizinto ezinokwenzeka kwi-Little Age Age.

Amaxesha e-Ice Age

Nangona kunjalo, kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba ubungakanani bexesha lomkhenkce omncinci alinakuthelekiswa namanye amaxesha amade kwaye abukhali athe umhlaba wethu waba nawo kwinqanaba le-glaciation. Unobangela wale meko yemozulu awaziwa kakuhle kodwa emva kwesi siganeko xa kuye kwavela izinto eziphilayo ezikwiseli ezininzi. Oku kuthetha ukuba kwinqanaba lendaleko, ixesha lomkhenkce elenzeka kwiplanethi yethu iminyaka ezizigidi ezingama-750 eyadlulayo inokuba yinto elungileyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nexesha elincinci lomkhenkce kunye neempawu zalo.


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