Imbali yeemaphu

ukubaluleka kwembali yeemaphu

Xa sithetha ngemithombo eyahlukeneyo yezembali kunye neziganeko ezenzekileyo, ngamanye amaxesha siyakulibala ukubaluleka kweemephu. Inkqubo ye- imephu yeembali zembali inoxanduva funda ukubaluleka kophuhliso lweemephu kwimbali yonke. Iimephu zazisetyenziselwa ukuxhasa uhlalutyo kunye nolwazi lweenkqubo zembali. Yiyo loo nto kungekho nto ibalulekileyo kwimephu yeemaphu ekufundeni nasekuphandeni imbali.

Kweli nqaku siza kukubonisa ukuba zithini iimpawu zembali yemephu kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

Ukubonakaliswa kwembali yeemaphu

imephu yeembali zembali

Kukho ukutolikwa okuninzi kwenyani yelizwe elaziwayo kwimbali. Kwiarhente yakudala nakumaxesha aphakathi kukho iimephu ezininzi ezenza imodeli yokuchazwa kunye nokukhulelwa kwehlabathi ngemephu. Kukho ubunyani kathathu obuchazwe kwimephu: ideology, umzobo kunye nejografi. Kule meko, indawo inezinto ezibonakalayo kunye nezomntu. Oku kuthetha ukuba phantse lonke uluntu lusebenzise iimephu njengezixhobo ezifanelekileyo ukumela umhlaba owaziwayo kunye nelizwe elithelekelelwayo. Ngale ndlela kunokwenzeka ukudala umbono olungelelanisiweyo weziko lendalo yoluntu.

Ukutyhubela imbali, iimephu zibonwe ukuba ezinye zineempawu zazo, ezinye zineempawu zokwenyani kwaye ngamanye amaxesha ezinye bezingaqhelekanga kwaye ziingcinga ezilula zezinto abazicingayo. Ukusuka kwakudala kakhulu Indoda isivile isidingo sokwenza imizobo kunye neemephu ukuba nendawo ephakathi esebenzayo ukubonisa okanye ukuhambisa ulwazi malunga nenyani yokwenyani yelizwe. Iindawo eziye zaphuhliswa kakhulu ngendlela ye-cartographic ziyi-3: iMesopotamiya, iGrisi neRoma.

Malunga ne-3000 BC ezinye zeempawu eziphambili zempucuko zaqala ukubonakala kwiindawo zecrescent echumileyo kwaye kulapho zenzeke khona. Izifundo zokuqala zeenkwenkwezi kunye nokubonakaliswa kweemifanekiso. Zezona zibonakaliso zindala zemifanekiso siyaziyo. KwakungamaSumeriya kunye neeAkkadi ezenza umzobo wendawo. Bayile iimephu ezindala zeedolophu, zobumelwane, imijelo okanye izakhiwo. Eyona mephu indala eye yafundwa yimephu yeembali ifunyanwa phakathi konyaka ka 2700 ukuya kowama 2200 BC.Ingqinelana necwecwe elibizwa ngokuba yi Nuzzi kwaye lalinendlela yolawulo.

Ngoko, abantu baseMesopotamiya babecinga ukuba isibhakabhaka kunye nomhlaba zenze iidiski ezimbini ezicaba kwaye zixhaswe emanzini.

Ulwandle kwiimephu zeemephu

Kufuneka ikhunjulwe ukuba imbali yemephu, Ulwandle lwaluyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kuphuhliso lwejografi yeemaphu. Uhambo, uninzi lwazo belukwimo yorhwebo, yayilezo zazibonelela ngolwazi oluxabisekileyo lendawo elunxwemeni, ubukho beankile, ulwalathiso lwemimoya nemilomo yemilambo, phakathi kwezinye.

Kulapho ulwazi oluninzi lwafunyanwa khona ukuze ndikwazi ukuqhuba ngorhwebo phakathi kwezixeko. Iqela lokuqala lomntu elaliqonda ukuba likwazi ukwenza imisebenzi yezoqoqosho kwindawo ethile yayingamaGrike kwinqanaba lakudala. Abathunywa kwaye bafikelele kwimisebenzi ephezulu kuba iikholoni ezininzi zazisekwe kunxweme olusemantla loLwandle iAegean, unxweme olusentshona nolusemazantsi oLwandle Olumnyama, emazantsi usingasiqithi wase-Italiya naseSicily.

Nangona lwalukhona ulwazi malunga nejografi, iindlela ezazisenziwa ngala maGrike ngokudweba imephu zazingentle kwaphela. Imbali yeekhathuni ijolise ekufundeni ukuba zenziwe njani iimephu zokuqala. Kubo, umhlaba wawenziwe njengediski ethe tyaba kwaye ujikelezwe yimisinga ekhawulezayo yoMlambo i-Ocean. Imida yehlabathi ngelo xesha eyaziwayo yayingunxweme olusempuma lweMeditera.

Kwiminyaka kamva, Ithuba lamaGrike lalibonakaliswa njengenkqubela phambili ebonakalayo kwizifundo zesayensi ngqo. Kolu phuhliso lwenzululwazi lwalunesicelo esikhulu kumhlaba wejografi. Ujoliso lweJografi lwalukho eAlexandria, eAsia Minor naseGrisi. Ngexesha le-XNUMX neye-XNUMX leminyaka kwabakho ukonyuka okukhulu kwimisebenzi yejografi, ngakumbi eAlexandria. Kulapha ukuba abafundi abaqaqambe kakhulu kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nezinto abazifunayo baqale ukusebenzisa indlela yeenkwenkwezi ukumisela ububanzi. Oku kubonelele ngesiseko esibalulekileyo sokulinganisa umhlaba kunye nophuhliso lweembali zeemaphu ekupheleni kwenkulungwane yesithathu.

Ukubaluleka kwembali yeemaphu

U-Eratosthenes waseCyrene nguye owabala umlinganiselo weMeridiya yomhlaba. Kulapha kwaye kwenzeka njani ukufezekisa ukuchaneka okunike ukonyusa okuphawulekayo kwijografi. Ndiyabulela kolu balo, ukuqalisa isifundo semathematika kunye nesisu kunokuqokelela yonke imisebenzi yabaphambili. Apha kwagxininiswa ukuba umhlaba wawungumhlaba oneepali ezimbini kunye neikhweyitha. Uyilo lomhlaba kunye noqwalaselo lwalo luyilelwe kwimigca yobubanzi, eyahlulahlula ibe yimimandla emihlanu: imimandla emibini ebandayo, eminye imimandla emibini enobushushu kunye nendawo eshushu.

Ndidibanisa olu luyilo kunye nesiseko seemeridi esekwe kwimodeli yovavanyo kuba yomibini imigca iwele eRhodes. IRhodes yayisisiqithi esiya kuba liziko leemaphu kunye nendawo ekubhekiswa kuyo kulo lonke ilizwe elinabemi. Namhlanje i-zero meridian idlula eLondon. U-Eratosthenes wakwazi ukugqibezela imephu ngokuzoba izinto ezifanayo ezazinqamle iindawo zesikhokelo sakhe. Ikwaqwalasele iimeridians ezihambelana kunye okanye izixeko ezidumileyo. Wayefuna ukubanakho ukutshintsha umbono-mbini wohambo ngolunye uhlengahlengiso lwala maxesha mabini.

Imbali yeemephu zeemephu zibonisa u-Eratosthenes njengomkhuseli wokuhlala kwendawo yonke enemozulu epholileyo kwaye kwaye kwagqitywa ekubeni kunokwenzeka ngomkhombe ukusuka e-Hispania ukuya e-India ekumda we-Afrika. Le yenye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo kwimidlalo yeembali yeemaphu. Emva kwexesha kwi-Middle Ages, ngokuzalwa kwenkolo kunye nobuKristu, inkolelo yokuba umhlaba uthe tyaba yatshintsha yonke imephu.

Namhlanje, namhlanje, ngenxa yesathelayithi sinombono opheleleyo ngeplanethi yethu, ke sinemephu echanekileyo enokubakho.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nembali yeemaphu kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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  1.   Tlacael Bracamontes sitsho

    I-germán ibonakala ibalulekile kum njengoko usiya kumbono wokuzoba iimephu zembali apho ukhankanya ukuba "luxanduva lokufunda konke ukubaluleka kophuhliso lweemephu kwimbali yonke, - ngokunjalo - nokuhambelana kohlalutyo nolwazi iinkqubo zembali (eziqala) ukusuka ekubalulekeni kwesifundo ukukwazi ukufunda nokuphanda imbali ukusuka kwimvelaphi yayo. Kodwa ndingathanda ukwazi ngakumbi malunga nolwakhiwo lwentlalo olwenziwayo ngokuyinxenye ukwakha uphando olusekwe kwezi zikhombisi apho singabona khona imihla, iindawo kunye nesalathiso esihle sommandla apho uxwebhu luntywiliselwa khona. Ndikwacaphula isicatshulwa sakho kodwa ndingathanda ukusicaphula ngcono ngonyaka, ukusuka kwelinye inqaku kwaye ndingathanda ukufumana unyaka obhekisa ngawo kuxwebhu lwakho.