Iintaba-mlilo ezinkulu emhlabeni

iintaba-mlilo ezinkulu ehlabathini

Ngokuqhelekileyo, kukho malunga nama-20 iintaba-mlilo eziqhumayo ngalo naluphi na usuku nanini na kwihlabathi jikelele. Oku kuthetha ukuba unyulo olutsha ayisoziganeko ezingaqhelekanga njengoko kubonakala ngathi. Njengezaqhwithi, ngaphezu kwe-1000 imibane ebethayo iyawa ekupheleni kosuku. I iintaba-mlilo ezinkulu ehlabathini Ngabo abo bagqabhuka kunye nobukhulu obukhulu.

Kweli nqaku siza kugxila ekuxeleleni ukuba zeziphi iimpawu zeentaba-mlilo ezinkulu ehlabathini.

Iintaba-mlilo ezinkulu emhlabeni

i-lava ekhutshwayo

NgokweNkqubo yeSmithsonian Global Volcanology, zimalunga ne-1356 iintaba-mlilo ezisaqhushumbayo kwihlabathi jikelele, okuthetha ukuba iintaba-mlilo ezisaqhushumbayo zezo zidubulayo ngoku, zibonisa iimpawu zokusebenza (ezifana neenyikima okanye ukukhutshwa kwegesi enkulu) okanye ziye zagqabhuka iintaba-mlilo, oko kukuthi, kwiminyaka eyi-10.000 XNUMX edluleyo.

Kukho zonke iindidi zeentaba-mlilo, ugqabhuko-dubulo olungaphezulu okanye olungaphantsi, olunamandla okutshabalalisa axhomekeke kwizinto ezininzi. Kukho iintaba-mlilo emhlabeni, kukho ii-craters ezininzi, zasemanzini, kwaye i-geological composition yahluke kakhulu, kodwa yeyiphi eyona ntaba-mlilo inkulu ehlabathini?

Nevados Ojos del Salado Volcano

Ifumaneka kumda weChile neArgentina, iNevados Ojos del Salado yeyona ntaba-mlilo iphakamileyo emhlabeni, kodwa iphakame kangangeemitha ezingama-2.000 kuphela ngaphezu kwesiseko sayo. Iphakamela kwiimitha ezingama-6.879 ecaleni kweAndes.

Umsebenzi wayo wokugqibela orekhodiweyo wawungoNovemba 14, 1993, xa ikholamu engwevu ephazamisayo yomphunga wamanzi kunye negesi yesolphataric yabonwa iiyure ezintathu. Ngomhla we-16 kuNovemba, abakhi-mkhanyo abavela kwiNkonzo yezoLimo yeMfuyo kunye neSikhululo samaPolisa saseMaricunga, iikhilomitha ezingama-30 ukusuka kwintaba-mlilo, baqaphela iintsika ezifanayo kodwa zincinci.

Intaba-mlilo yaseMauna Loa

mlilo

Incopho yentaba-mlilo iMauna Loa ingaphantsi ngeemitha ezingama-2.700 kuneOjos del Salado eNevada., kodwa iphakame ngokuphindwe ka-10 kuneeAndes kuba iphakame kangangeekhilomitha ezili-9 ukusuka elwandle. Ngale ndlela, igqalwa ngabaninzi njengeyona ntaba-mlilo inkulu ehlabathini. Incopho yayo isikwe yi-crater ye-Mokuaweo, eyona indala kwaye inkulu i-6 x 8 km crater.

Asiyontaba-mlilo kuphela egqalwa njengenkulu kodwa ikwaphakamileyo. Nangona kukho ezinye iintaba-mlilo ezikwaluthungelwano lweentaba-mlilo ezijikeleze iZiqithi zaseHawaii, le yenye yezona zinkulu. Ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle inobude obumalunga neemitha ezingama-4170. Le milinganiselo kunye nomphezulu kunye nobubanzi yenza umthamo opheleleyo malunga ne-80.000 yeekyubhiki zeekhilomitha. Ngesi sizathu, yeyona volcano inkulu emhlabeni ngokobubanzi kunye nomthamo.

Idume ngokuba yintaba-mlilo eluhlobo lwekhaka eneempawu ezizodwa. Inemisinga ephezulu eqhubekayo ebiphuma kugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo yamandulo. Yintaba-mlilo ethathwa njengenye yezona zinto zisebenzayo eMhlabeni. Ukususela ekusekweni kwayo, phantse ibe nogqabhuko-dubulo oluqhubekayo lwentaba-mlilo, nangona ingenawo amandla kakhulu. Ngokusisiseko yenziwe ngabade kwaye inesiseko saloo msebenzi kunye nokusondela kwayo kuluntu. Oku kuthetha ukuba ibandakanyiwe kwiprojekthi yeeVolcano zeminyaka elishumi, nto leyo eyenza ukuba ibe ngumxholo wophando oluqhubekayo. Ngombulelo kolu phando, kukho ulwazi oluninzi malunga nalo.

INtaba i-Etna

IMount Etna, eseCatania, isixeko sesibini ngobukhulu eSicily, eItali, yeyona ntaba-mlilo iphakamileyo kwilizwekazi laseYurophu. Ubude bayo bumalunga ne-3.357 yeemitha, kwaye ngokutsho kwe-Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), ugqabhuko-dubulo olulandelelanayo kwiminyaka yakutshanje lunyuse incopho yazo yeemitha ezingama-33 ngexesha elifutshane.

Emva kokuma kweentsuku ezingama-20, iMount Etna yaphinda yagqabhuka ngoLwesibini, umhla wama-21 kuSeptemba. Le ntaba-mlilo iqhutywa yiNkqubo yeGlobal Volcano yeSmithsonian, enye yezona ntaba-mlilo zidume kakubi ehlabathini, ezaziwa ngokuqhubekayo ngentaba-mlilo, ugqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu oluninzi, kunye nesixa esikhulu sodaka oluhlala lulikhupha.

Kumphakamo ongaphezulu kweemitha ezingama-3.300, Yeyona ntaba-mlilo iphakamileyo kwaye ibanzi kwilizwekazi laseYurophu, yeyona ntaba iphakamileyo kwiMeditera. kunye neyona ntaba iphakamileyo eItali kumazantsi eAlps. Ijonge uLwandle lwe-Ionian ngasempuma, uMlambo iSimito ngasentshona nasezantsi, kunye noMlambo iAlcantara ukuya emantla.

Intaba-mlilo igubungela indawo emalunga ne-1.600 yeekhilomitha zesikwere, inobubanzi obumalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-35 ukusuka emantla ukuya emazantsi, umjikelezo omalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-200, kunye nomthamo omalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-500.

Ukusuka kwinqanaba lolwandle ukuya encotsheni yentaba, imbonakalo yelizwe kunye nokutshintsha kwendawo yokuhlala kuyothusa, kunye nemimangaliso yayo yendalo etyebileyo. Konke oku kwenza le ndawo ibe yodwa kubakhenkethi, abafoti, izazi zendalo, ii-volcanologists, inkululeko yokomoya kunye nabathandi bendalo bomhlaba neparadesi. IMpuma yeSicily ibonisa iindidi ezininzi zomhlaba, kodwa ukusuka kwindawo yokujonga i-geological, ikwabonelela ngokungafaniyo okumangalisayo.

Eyona ntaba-mlilo inkulu ehlabathini: iintaba-mlilo ezinkulu

iintaba-mlilo ezinkulu emhlabeni

I-supervolcano luhlobo lwentaba-mlilo enegumbi le-magma elikhulu ngokuphindwe kaliwaka kunentaba-mlilo eqhelekileyo kwaye ngoko inokuvelisa olona gqabhuko-dubulo lukhulu nolona lutshabalalisayo eMhlabeni.

Ngokungafaniyo neentaba-mlilo zemveli, ngokucacileyo azizontaba, kodwa ziidipozithi ze-magma ezingaphantsi komhlaba, ezinoxinzelelo olukhulu olume okwe crater olubonakalayo kumphezulu.

Kukho intaba-mlilo engaphaya kwamashumi amahlanu kwimbali yeplanethi yethu, echaphazela iindawo ezinkulu zejografi. Kwakunjalo ngeMount Tuba, eyagqabhuka eSumatra kwiminyaka engama-74.000 eyadlulayo. ukutshiza i-2.800 cubic kilometers yodaka. Nangona kunjalo, esi ayisokugqibela, njengoko esona senzeka kutshanje senzeka eNew Zealand malunga neminyaka engama-26,000 eyadlulayo.

Mhlawumbi enye yezona ndawo zaziwayo yiYellowstone supervolcano, eUnited States, eyathi yasekwa kwiminyaka engama-640.000 XNUMX eyadlulayo ibangela intaba-mlilo. iintsika zothuthu ukuya kwi-30.000 yeemitha ukuphakama ezigqume iGulf of Mexico ngothuli.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neentaba-mlilo ezinkulu emhlabeni kunye neempawu zazo.


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