Kutheni iLake Baikal idume kangaka?

Ichibi leBaikal

Amaxesha amaninzi ebomini kuthiwe inyani ayiqhelekanga kunentsomi. Kwaye kwindalo kukho iimeko ezizodwa zeendawo ezinobuhle obumangalisayo okanye obukhetheke kakhulu ngenxa yeempawu zazo, iintyatyambo ezingaqhelekanga kunye nezilwanyana okanye ngenxa yezimanga zendalo ehlabathini.

Kule meko ndiza kuthetha ngayo Ichibi leBaikal. Eli chibi lidume kakhulu emhlabeni ngezizathu ezininzi. Kubaluleke kakhulu kwizazinzulu nakubakhenkethi ngokunjalo. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi izizathu zokuba kutheni kubaluleke kangaka kwaye inokuba yinto engakholelekiyo?

Imvelaphi kunye neempawu zeChibi iBaikal

Eli chibi linemvelaphi yetectonic. Oku kuthetha ukuba iqalwe kukuhamba kwamacwecwe eetectonic akhona apha eMhlabeni (ukufunda okungakumbi malunga neetectonic plates ezifundwa nguMaleko ongaphakathi woMhlaba). Ime kumazantsi eSiberia, eRashiya, phakathi kwe-Irkutsk Oblast emantla ntshona kunye neBuryatia kumazantsi mpuma, kufutshane nesixeko saseIrkutsk. Yaziwa njenge "Iliso eliluhlaza laseSiberia" y "IPerile yaseAsia".

Ukwakhiwa kweChibi iBaikal kuqikelelwa ukuba kwenzeka emva kwayo malunga neminyaka engama 25-30 yezigidi. Ngokwendlela yokwakheka komhlaba singathi asifumananga elona chibi lidala kwimbali.

Oku kubalulekile ngokubaluleka kweli chibi Indawo yeLifa leMveli lehlabathi yi-Unesco ngo-1996. Lelinye lawona machibi mancinci anamafu emhlabeni (yiyo loo nto isiteketiso seBlue Eye). Ubunzima bulinganiswa ngee-disc ze-Secchi. Ezi diski zenza ukuba ukwazi ukwazi ubungakanani bemitha yokukhanya engena emanzini kwaye ke ukwazi ukubengezela. Ewe, inani lokukhanya elifikelela kubunzulu lilinganisiwe kwaye amanqaku okukhanya arekhodwe ukuya kuthi ga kwi-20 yeemitha ubunzulu.

Eli chibi likwajolise ekubeni lijikeleze Iipesenti ezingama-20 zamanzi amatsha, angenamanzi emhlabeni (malunga ne-23.600 km3 yamanzi). Inokubamba amanzi amaninzi kuba enzulu kakhulu kwaye ngenxa yokuba ityiswa ngamashumi amathathu anesithathu e-tributaries. Ubukhulu beLake Baikal zezi: Ama-31.494 km² omhlaba, i-636 km ubude, i-80 km ububanzi kunye ne-1.680 m ubunzulu.

Ichibi leBaikal

Ichibi leBaikal elinomkhenkce. Umthombo: http://www.rusiamia.com/rusia/turismo/lago-baikal-rusia/

Olunye uphawu olwenza ukuba lubaluleke kakhulu kukuba lelona chibi kuphela apho iindawo zalo ezingakhange zichaphazeleke ngumkhenkce welizwekazi nangona ulichibi eliphezulu. Izifundo ziye zenziwa kwiinyibilikisi zeli chibi kwaye kuqikelelwa ukuba ukuba yonke intlenga eqokelele kule minyaka ingama-25 ukuya kuma-30 ezigidi ingasuswa, eli chibi liyakufikelela ubunzulu ukuya kwi-9 km.

Eli chibi lijikelezwe ziintaba (yiyo loo nto inezinto ezininzi) ezikhuselweyo ngokobuchwephesha njengepaki yesizwe yolondolozo lwayo kwaye ineziqithi ezimalunga nama-22. Esona siqithi sikhulu sibizwa ngokuba yiOlkhon kwaye simalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-72 ubude.

Isiqithi saseOlkhon

Isiqithi saseOlkhon

Ukubaluleka kweLake Baikal

Eli chibi, njengoko benditshilo ngaphambili, libaluleke kakhulu ekujongeni kwiindawo ezimbini zokujonga: njengendawo yokundwendwela nokwenza ukhenketho okanye njengososayensi apho unokufumana khona iimpawu ezizodwa ezenza ukuba libaluleke kangaka.

Uphawu lokuqala olwenza kubaluleke kangaka kuluntu lwenzululwazi kukuba ichibi elinye elinje ligcina iipesenti ezingama-20 zoovimba bamanzi kwihlabathi liphela. Kwimeko apho ezingama-336 zayo iyeke ukubonelela ngamanzi kwaye uyondle, ichibi liyakuthatha Malunga neminyaka engama-400 ukukhupha inkqubo ngomphunga. Olunye lolwazi olunomdla olwenziwe ngoososayensi kukuba ukuba bonke abantu behlabathi babonelelwa leli chibi kuphela, banokuphila iminyaka engama-40 kwaye bangabinangxaki yokunqongophala kwamanzi.

Ukucaca kwamanzi akhankanywe apha ngasentla kukwenza ukuba ubaluleke. Ubuncinci obunqabileyo obunayo bufanelekile ngenxa yokuba izinto ezincinci zihlala emanzini ayo coca emanzini kwaye wenze ukucoca okuhle. Olunye uphononongo lwenziwe ukubona ukuba ezi ntsholongwane zinokusetyenziselwa ukucoca ukuchitheka kweoyile kwamanye amanzi ngenxa yenqanaba eliphezulu lokucoca.

Amanzi acwecwe ngekristale asetyenziselwa unyango oluthile, ngakumbi ezinye izidlo ezingalunganga kwiityuwa zembiwa. Mandulo, abantu baseAsia babeligqala njengendawo engcwele iChibi iBaikal. Nanamhlanje, iintsalela zezakhiwo ezazisetyenziswa zizizwe zakudala ukuya izithethe apho batyalwe khona ngamandla echibi.

Olunye uphawu olwenza ukuba lubaluleke ngakumbi kuluntu lwenzululwazi ziimeko zemozulu ezibi kakhulu apho zifunyenwe khona. Ebusika amaqondo obushushu echibi anokufikelela kwi-45 degrees ngaphantsi kwe-zero. Nangona kunjalo, iLake Baikal yindawo yezilwanyana nezilwanyana. I-1.600 genera yezilwanyana kunye nezityalo ezingama-800 zihlala kunye ezikwadwelisiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Kuzo kukho iintlobo ezininzi ezikhoyo ezifana nesitywina kunye neBaikal sturgeon, intlanzi i-golomjanka kunye ne-epishura crab (isilwanyana esincinci nendima yaso kukutya, kuba iyahluza amanzi ngomzimba wayo). Indima ye-epishura ibaluleke kakhulu njengoko iyintlobo enobuninzi obukhulu. Kukho ukuya kuthi ga kwizigidi ezi-3 zale nonkala kwimitha nganye yesikwere yomphezulu. Mncinci kakhulu, umalunga neemilimitha ezi-2 ubude, kodwa amandla abo okucoca amanzi ayamangalisa. Enkosi ngokuyinxalenye kubo kungoko ichibi licacile. Ngo-1976, umzi-mveliso owawunoxanduva lokwenza iselulosi wayilahla loo nkunkuma ngqo kwiChibi iBaikal emngciphekweni wokuphila kwezi crabs kunye nezinye iintlobo ezikhoyo.

IChibi iBaikal Crab

IChibi iBaikal Crab

Eli chibi liyakhula unyaka ngamnye malunga neesentimitha ezimbini. Oku kubangela iinyikima ezininzi ngenxa yokuhamba ngokuqhubekayo kwamatye ephepha. Eli chibi linokugcina amanzi amaninzi ngonyaka.

Iminqweno yeChibi iBaikal

Emazantsi echibi apho iphiramidi yentsimbi engenazingubo kunye nengubo yeRussia. Oku kungenxa yenqanawa yokuqala yohambo ekwaziyo ukufikelela emazantsi echibi ngoJulayi 29, 2008.

Eli chibi laduma kakhulu hayi kwiminyaka emininzi eyadlulayo ngenxa yesenzeko esenzeka phezu komhlaba kwaye saqwalaselwa okokuqala ngoosomajukujuku Isikhululo soMbane saMazwe ngaMazwe (ISS). Le nto yayiqulathe uphawu olukhulu phezu kwechibi (elalikade linomkhenkce) elifana kakhulu nelasekhohlo iglasi yamanzi phezu kwetafile. Inqaku lalimalunga neekhilomitha ezi-4,5 ububanzi. Abantu abazinikele kwizifundo ze-paranormal bathi inokuba sisiphumo semihlaba ye-UFO landings (elandela umgaqo ofanayo wesangqa sesityalo).

Isangqa seLake Baikal

Isangqa seLake Baikal

Kwelinye icala, uluntu lwenzululwazi lwanika ingcaciso ehambelanayo ngakumbi yale nto. Yayisisangqa esimnyama esibangelwe kukuhanjiswa kwamanzi. Amanzi afudumeleyo nangaphantsi ashinyeneyo anyukela phezulu kwaye xa athe aqubisana nengqele yemo engqongileyo yagodola yenza umaleko omncinci womkhenkce. Abona bantu bakholelwa kwelokuba ukuba uzulazula macala onke kweso sangqa, kuya kwenzeka kuwe ngendlela efanayo nonxantathu waseBermuda, uya kugutyungelwa yimisinga eneziphithiphithi evela emazantsi echibi.

Ukhenketho kwiChibi iBaikal

Ukutyelela kunye nokonwabela ichibi iBaikal, ungathatha uhambo ngololiwe waseTrans-Siberian. Lo loliwe uyijikeleze ngokupheleleyo, unqumla malunga neebhulorho ezingama-200 kunye netonela ezimalunga nama-33. Kwiivenkile ezijikeleze eli chibi bathengisa iintlanzi ezitshaywayo ze-omul kwaye ungonwabela xa ujonga ubuhle bendawo.

Inxalenye esemazantsi mpuma echibini, ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, lolona khenketho lukhulu ukusukela kwinxalenye ekumntla mpuma.

Ichibi leBaikal kunye notshintsho lwemozulu

Izifundo ezininzi zesayensi zibonise ukuba iziphumo ze Utshintsho lwemozulu kunye nobushushu behlabathi banokwenza eli chibi linganiki mdla kangako. Olunye lwezi zifundo lwapapashwa kwiphephancwadi iBioScience. Umbhali wolu phando waye UMarianne V. Moore kwaye yaqaphela ukuba imozulu yeli chibi sele ithambile kakhulu kunye noluhlu lwamaqondo obushushu angalugqithisi njengangaphambili. Ebusika ichibi lihlala linomkhenkce ixesha elincinci kunangaphambili. Le nyani inokubangela umonakalo kwindalo nakwizilwanyana ezinobungozi ezinje nge uphawu lwe-nerpa. Olu tywina lwaselwandle lukuphela kwetywina lamanzi angenawo amanzi ehlabathini kwaye lunokukhwelana lize lizalele kumkhenkce weChibi iBaikal. Njengokuba lo mkhenkce ukhona kangangexesha elincinci, amandla okuzala kunye nethuba liphantsi kakhulu kwaye inani labatywinayo liyancipha. Koku kongezwa umntu. Ewe, ngumntu zingela lamatywina ngokuchwechwa kwaye ngobuninzi ezenza enye yezona ziseko ziqinileyo zoqoqosho lommandla.

Itywina leNerpa

Itywina le-nerpa lifuna umkhenkce ukuze uphinde uvelise. Umthombo: http://www.rdrusia.com/rusia-el-lago-baikal/

Okokugqibela, enye yezinto ezibangela umdla ngeli chibi kukuba kunjalo indawo ekuphela kwayo onokufumana kuyo i-neutrinos. La ngamasuntswana angafumaneki eMhlabeni kwaye asinika ubuncwane bolwazi malunga nobomi bezinye iiplanethi kunye nemithala kunye nokwenzekayo kwindawo engaphandle.

Njengoko ubona, eli chibi, ukusuka ekuqaleni ukuya ekugqibeleni, lingummangaliso kwizazinzulu nakubakhenkethi. Ke unokupakisha iibhegi zakho kwaye ucwangcise uhambo lwakho olulandelayo 😉


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