IHipparchus yaseNicaea

IHipparchus yaseNicaea

Kwilizwe lesayensi kubekho oososayensi abaninzi abebesaziwa ngamagalelo abo amakhulu abaye banceda ukuqhubela phambili okukhulu. Namhlanje siza kuthetha IHipparchus yaseNicaea. UngumGourmet ongumGrike kunye nesazi sezibalo esasisaziwa ngokuzisa inkqubela phambili kuwo omabini amasebe enzululwazi. Kuninzi okungaziwayo ngobomi bakhe kodwa okuninzi kuyaziwa malunga negalelo lakhe.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba ngubani uHipparchus waseNicea kwaye zeziphi izinto awazenzayo kwilizwe le-astronomy nakwimathematics.

I-Biography kaHipparchus waseNicea

I-Hipparchus yegalelo laseNicea

Le ndoda yazalelwa eNicea, njengeTurkey yangoku, ngonyaka we-190 BC Ngelo xesha, zazingaziwa iinkcukacha ezininzi, ngenxa yoko bambalwa abayaziyo inyani ngobomi bakhe. Yonke idatha ebiqokelelwe kwesi sazinzulu ibonakala ibonisa ukuba wayesebenza kwidolophu yakhe efunda iimozulu zonyaka zalapho. Olu hlobo lomsebenzi lwaluqhelekile kuzo zonke izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zamaGrike zelo xesha. Kungenxa yokuba yayisetyenziselwa ukubala ukuqala nokuphela kwamaxesha emvula kunye noqhwithela.

Phakathi kweyona mpumelelo ibalulekileyo yeHipparchus yaseNicea esiyifumanayo Ukucaciswa kwekhathalogu yeenkwenkwezi kunye nokubala kokufumana kwangaphambili ii-equinox. Wayekwazi nomgama ophakathi komhlaba nenyanga okanye wayenokuba nguyise we-trigonometry. Ingxaki kukuba akukho nto ingako yaziwayo ngobomi bakhe. Abanye ababhali abanjengoPtolemy bashiye iimvakalelo ezilungileyo malunga nophando lukaHipparchus. Uninzi lobomi bobuchwephesha bale ndoda benzeka eRhodes.

Umsebenzi ophambili wasentsimini yayiyinkwenkwezi. Kule ndawo kwakuthathwa njengenye yezona zibalulekileyo kuba ngelo xesha akukho nto yayisaziwa ngendawo yasezulwini. Phakathi kwenye yeempumelelo zakhe, uHipparchus waseNicea Wayengomnye woovulindlela ekwenzeni imodeli yokulinganisa yokuhamba phakathi kwenyanga nelanga. Ukongeza, waqhuba izifundo ezininzi ezakwaziyo ukwenza imilinganiselo echanekileyo. Esi sazinzulu sisebenzise ubuchwephesha bezinto ezithile ezazenziwe ziinzululwazi zangaphambili zamaKhaledi nezase Bhabhiloni. Ngombulelo kolu lwazi, umgangatho olungileyo womsebenzi ufezekisiwe kwaye ukufumanisa kwabo kwaba sisiseko sophando lwamva kamva olwenziwa zezinye iinkwenkwezi.

Igalelo leHipparchus yaseNicea

Siza kuhlalutya ngononophelo ukuba yayiyintoni igalelo kwinzululwazi elenza uHipparchus waseNicea adume kangaka. Wayethathwa njengenye yezona nzulu zibalulekileyo kwaye impembelelo yakhe yathatha iinkulungwane. Ngaphandle kokubaluleka kwale nzulu-lwazi, kuncinci okwaziwayo ngobomi bakhe. Kuwo wonke umsebenzi awawenzayo, usaphila nanamhlanje enye yazo yaziwa ngegama lika Amagqabantshintshi ngeAratus kunye neEudoxus.

Ngenxa yokunqongophala kwamangqina kwimithombo ethe ngqo engqina ukuba iminikelo yabo ibintle kakhulu, singabuka imibhalo kaPtolemy noStrabo. Eyokuqala, ngokukodwa, ikhankanya uHipparchus kwiAlmagest yakhe, ingqokelela enkulu yeenkwenkwezi ebhalwe kwinkulungwane yesibini ye-AD. Nangona kungaziwa kangako ngobomi bakhe, kukho abanye ababhali ababonisa ukuba uHipparchus wakha indawo yokugcina izinto ngeenkwenkwezi eRhodes apho wayenokuthi enze uphando khona. Ingxaki yokungazi kakhulu ngayo kukuba bekungaziwa ukuba zeziphi izixhobo azisebenzisileyo ukuphuhlisa uphando. Le yinkcukacha ebalulekileyo xa kusekwa izikhokelo ezaye zasebenza njengesiseko sophando lwamva olwenziwe zezinye iinkwenkwezi.

Kwakhona, siyabona ukuba uPtolemy walatha ukuba uHipparchus yakha i-theodolite ukuze ikwazi ukulinganisa ii-angles. Le yindlela awakwazi ngayo ukubala umgama phakathi kwelanga nenyanga. Njengoko bekutshiwo ngaphambili, enye yezona zinto zibalaseleyo zokukhumbula uHipparchus waseNicea kukwenza ikhathalogu yokuqala yeenkwenkwezi. Ngelo xesha, kwakungekho lwazi lungako malunga neenkwenkwezi. Nangona kunjalo, uHipparchus wafumanisa inkwenkwezi entsha ebekwe kwikroza leScorpio.

Ukufunyanwa kokufumanisa inkwenkwezi entsha esibhakabhakeni kwamkhuthaza ngokwaneleyo ukuba enze ikhathalogu ebandakanya ezinye iinkwenkwezi ezingama-850 ezaziwayo ngelo xesha. Zonke iinkwenkwezi zikule khathalogu Bahlelwa ngokokukhanya kwabo ngokwenkqubo yobukhulu be-6. Le ndlela ifana kakhulu nale isetyenzisiweyo namhlanje kudweliso lweenkwenkwezi. Kwakhona wakha iiglobhu zezulu ezibonisa iinkwenkwezi neenkwenkwezi.

Ngelishwa, emva kweminyaka, ikhathalogu yoqobo ayizange igcinwe. Yonke into eyaziwayo ngalo msebenzi ivela kumsebenzi kaPtolemy, owasebenzisa izifundo zakhe njengesiseko sokwenza ikhathalogu yakhe eyaziwa ngokuba yiAlmagest. Ngokutsho kweengcali, uPtolemy wayenoxanduva lokukhuphela oko kwafunyanwa nguHipparchus kwaye wakwazi ukuwandisa ngokufumanisa kwakhe.

Ukuqhubela phambili kwee-equinox

Enye yemisebenzi yeHipparchus yaseNicaea yayililungelo le-equinox. Le ntshukumo ichazwa njengokuhamba kweequinoxes ecaleni kwe-ecliptic ekhuthazwa ukujikeleza kwangaphambili kwe-axis yokujikeleza komhlaba. Xa uHipparchus wayebhala ikhathalogu yakhe yeenkwenkwezi, waqaphela ukuba ezinye iinkwenkwezi zihamba ngokuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo yangaphambili. Le nyaniso yamenza ukuba abonakalise ukuba ziinkwenkwezi ezihambayo okanye umhlaba utshintshe indawo yawo. Le ngcinga yamkhokelela ekubeni aseke intshukumo eyaziwa ngokuba kukufumana kwangaphambili. Le ntshukumo iphathwa ngokubanzi njengohlobo lokubhabha okujikelezayo okuchaphazela ukujikeleza kwe-axis yomhlaba yokujikeleza. Umjikelo ngamnye uneminyaka engama-25.772.

Emva kwentshukumo yokujikeleza kunye nokuguqulelwa komhlaba, ukuvela kwentshukumo yesithathu kwafunyanwa. Unobangela wale ntshukumo yimpembelelo yomxhuzulane phakathi kwelanga nenyanga emhlabeni. Amandla omxhuzulane achaphazela i-equatorial bulge yeplanethi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda okuninzi malunga neHipparchus yaseNicea kunye negalelo lakhe kwisayensi.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
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  1.   Andres sitsho

    Kukho ababhali bebhayoloji abathi uHiparco wakha indawo yokujonga ngeenkwenkwezi eRhodes apho wayenokwenza khona uphando lwakhe. iisemantics ezichanekileyo.