Imozulu yaseRoma yeyona ilungileyo

ezona mpawu zemozulu zaseRoma

El imozulu yaseRoma yeyona ilungileyo okanye ixesha eliphakathi, maxa wambi ekubhekiselwa kuko njengokufudumala kwehlabathi konyaka wewaka okanye elihonjiswe ngewaka, yayilixesha lemozulu eshushu ngokungaqhelekanga kummandla woMntla weAtlantiki owawususela malunga nenkulungwane ye-1990 ukuya kweye-XNUMX. Imozulu entle idla ngokukhankanywa kwiingxoxo eziphembelela ingxoxo yangoku malunga nokufudumala kwehlabathi. Olunye uphononongo lwalatha kweli xesha njengemeko yemozulu ephakathi yokuphola kwehlabathi kunye/okanye ukuqaqambisa ukubaluleka kweziphumo ngaphaya kommandla we-anecdotal wobushushu. Elona qondo lobushushu laseRoma lalinobushushu obuphezulu kuneLittle Ice Age elalandelayo, elilingana ncakasana noo-XNUMXs, kodwa lalingenakufikelela kumazinga obushushu "ehlabathi" kwinkulungwane yama-XNUMX.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela malunga neempawu zemozulu yaseRoma kunye nendlela eziye zalichaphazela ngayo ihlabathi.

Imozulu yaseRoma yeyona ilungileyo

utshintsho lwemozulu oludlulileyo

Ukususela kwixesha lokugqibela lomkhenkce, izingqisho zemozulu ziye zaphazanyiswa amaxesha amaninzi. Ixesha eliNcinci le-Ice Age kunye neXesha eliPhakathi elifudumeleyo Ziziqendu ezibini ukusuka kwiminyaka engamawaka amabini edlulileyo. Ngenxa yokunqongophala kwamaxwebhu embali achanekileyo agubungela uMhlaba uphela kunye nokunqongophala kwemifuziselo enezigqibo eziphezulu ezisivumelayo ukuba sakhe ngokutsha imozulu yangaphambili, asikayazi eyona mihla, iqondo lobushushu, okanye ubungakanani besithuba. Ezi zibonakala zikwazi ukuhluka ngokwe-hemisphere kunye nemimandla ephambili ye-biogeographical.

Ngokutsho kwedatha ekhoyo yembali kunye ne-paleoclimatic, kwakukho imozulu yaseRoma ilungileyo (elona xesha lishushu), imihla yayo yokuqala neyokuphela ihlala ingacacanga. Kwi-European Middle Ages, iya kubonakala malunga ne-950 ukuya kwi-1350. Izifundo zokuqala zesi siganeko semozulu kunye ne-Little Ice Age eyalandelayo iye yaqhutyelwa kakhulu eYurophu, apho kubonakala ngathi le nto ibonakala kakhulu kwaye, ngaphezu kwayo yonke, ininzi kakhulu. ibhalwe ngcono.

Iziganeko zemozulu ezidlulileyo

eyona imozulu yaseRoma

Ekuqaleni, utshintsho lwamaqondo obushushu kwakucingelwa ukuba lwenzeka ehlabathini lonke. Noko ke, ezi mbono ziyaphikisana. Ingxelo ka-2001 ye-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change yashwankathela imeko yolwazi, ngokutsho kweengcali kunye neepaneli zenzululwazi ngaphakathi kombutho: "... iinyani zangoku azisivumeli ukuba sithi 'kukho ukupholisa okuhambelanayo okanye ukufudumeza amaxesha. engaqhelekanga ngexesha lokuqwalaselwa, kunye namagama emveli 'ixesha elincinci lomkhenkce' kunye 'nemozulu entle yaseRoma'. azisebenziseki kancinane ekuchazeni iintsingiselo zomndilili wokutshintsha kobushushu kwiinkulungwane ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo«.

Ngokutsho kweArhente yoPhando lwaseLwandle yaseU.S. (NOAA), “ingcamango yemozulu ephakathi okanye yehlabathi ‘ngeyona ndlela ilungileyo yemozulu’ ibinokuba shushu kunale yangoku. Okanye enye into, ayifunyaniswanga" kwaye "umkhondo okhoyo ubonisa ukuba kwakungekho xesha elide, iqondo lobushushu leHemisphere okanye lehlabathi linokufikelela okanye ngaphaya kwamaqondo obushushu enkulungwane yama-XNUMX”.

Ezinye i-paleoclimatologists ezisebenza ekwakhiweni kwakhona kwemimandla yemozulu yembali zihlala zibhekisela kwixesha elibandayo njenge "Little Ice Age" kunye nexesha elifudumeleyo njenge "Medieval Global Warming". Abanye balandela indibano, yaye xa bebona isiganeko esikhulu semozulu kwiLittle Ice Age, okanye imozulu entle, banxulumanisa iziganeko zabo nelo xesha. Ngoko ke, ezinye zeziganeko zemozulu ezilungileyo ngamaxesha okufuma okwandisiweyo okanye ukubanda, kunokuba amaxesha ashushu ngokungqongqo, kwaye oku kuyinyaniso ingakumbi kumbindi Antarctica, apho imo yendalo echaseneyo imiboniso ziye zabhalwa kuMntla Atlantic.

Imozulu yaseRoma yeyona ilungileyo kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zehlabathi

ubushushu bomhlaba

INorth Atlantic kunye noMntla Melika

IiVikings zasebenzisa elo thuba lolwandle olwalungenamkhenkce ukuze zenze iGreenland nezinye iindawo ezikwanti ezikumantla akude. I-PCM yalandelwa yi-Little Ice Age, ixesha lokupholisa eliye lahlala kwada kwayinkulungwane ye-800. KwiChesapeake Bay (USA), abaphandi bafumene utshintsho olukhulu lobushushu ngexesha lemozulu entle (malunga ne-1300-1400 iminyaka) kunye neLittle Ice Age (malunga ne-1850-XNUMX iminyaka), leyo inokunxulunyaniswa notshintsho kuxinzelelo lokujikeleza kwe-thermohaline yaseMntla yeAtlantiki.

Intlenga ephuma kuMgxobhozo wasePyrmont kwiLower Hudson Valley, eNew York, eUnited States, ingqina ixesha lamaxesha aphakathi ashushu, neyomileyo phakathi kowama-800 nowe-1300. Imbalela ethabatha ixesha elide iye yachaphazela iindawo ezikwintshona yeUnited States, ingakumbi impuma yeKhalifoniya nentshona yeGreat Basin. IAlaska kwafuneka ifumane amaza obushushu obu-3 afanayo: ukusuka ku-1 ukuya ku-300 A.D. C., ukusuka 850 ukuya 1200 kwaye emva 1800.

Ngexesha lemozulu entle, i-viticulture yasasazeka ukusuka kumantla eYurophu ukuya kumazantsi eNgilani, apho isekhona nanamhla.

Eminye imimandla

Imozulu yaseMpuma ye-Equatorial Africa yatshintshana phakathi kokubalela ngakumbi kunanamhlanje kunye nokuba manzi kakhulu. Esona mozulu somileyo senzeka ngexesha lemozulu ephakathi, malunga ne-1000 ukuya kwi-1270.

Imikhenkce evela kwimpuma ye-Bransfield Basin kwi-Antarctic Peninsula ibonisa ngokucacileyo isiganeko se-Little Ice Age kunye nemozulu ephakathi. Iminqathe eshiywe ukwahlula ixesha elibandayo malunga ne-1000-1100 AD ibonisa ngokuchanekileyo inyani yokuba eyona mozulu ilungileyo yinto eshukumayo, kwaye ngeli xesha "elishushu", kungakho ukufudumala kwendawo ngaxeshanye (kwi-North Pole) kunye nokupholisa iSouth Pole).

Uphando ngeekorale zasePacific sicebisa ukuba iimeko ezipholileyo, ezomileyo zisenokuba ziqhubekile ukuya kwiwaka lesibini leminyaka, ngokuhambelana nokubonakaliswa kokusingqongileyo okunokwenzeka kweLa Niña. Nangona idatha ye-Australia inqabile kakhulu (imozulu iphezulu kunye ne-Little Ice Age), ubungqina bokwakheka kwegrabile engapheliyo icebisa ukufuma okusisigxina kwiLake Eyre emazantsi. Ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX neye-XNUMX, oku kwakuhambelana nesiganeko esiqhelekileyo saseLa Niña, nangona ngokwalo kwakunganelanga ukubonisa utshintsho lonyaka kumanqanaba echibi okanye iimeko zemozulu kwezinye iindawo zase-Australia.

UAdhikari noKumon, abathatha iisampulu zentlenga kwiLake Nakatsuna kumbindi weJapan, baye baqaphela ubukho bemozulu efanelekileyo kunye neLittle Ice Age eyalandelayo.

Ngo-1996, ukudibana kwe-carbon-14 yeesampulu zentlenga kuLwandle lwaseSargasso kwabonisa ukuba ngexesha le-Little Ice Age, amaqondo obushushu phezu kolwandle ayemalunga ne-1°C ngaphantsi kunangexesha lika-1960-1990, kwaye ngexesha lemozulu yaseRoma imozulu yayiphezulu kunexesha lexesha lemozulu. ixesha 1960-1990. 1990 ixesha malunga ne-1°C.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nemozulu yaseRoma.


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