Bubuphi ubunzulu obuphezulu bolwandle

Bubuphi ubunzulu bolwandle obaziwayo?

Kanye njengokuba kuhlolisiswa ezona ntaba ziphakamileyo ehlabathini nokuba ziyintoni na iincopho zazo, nabantu baye bazama ukufunda ukuba bubuphi ubunzulu obuphezulu bolwandle neelwandle. Kuyinyani ukuba oku kunzima kakhulu ukubala oko ukwazi buyintoni ubunzulu bolwandle Ifuna iteknoloji ephezulu kakhulu. Umntu akanakuhla ngeenyawo, edada emazantsi olwandle, njengoko esenza ngeentaba.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela malunga nobunzulu obukhulu bolwandle, iimpawu zalo kunye noluphi uphando olukhoyo malunga nalo.

Uphando

iintlanzi elwandle

Emva kweenyanga zophando, iqela lezazinzulu lithi ekugqibeleni sinolona lwazi “luchaneke kakhulu” malunga neyona ndawo inzulu yesi sijikelezi-langa sethu. Zisisiphumo sohambo olunzulu oluntlanu olwasebenzisa obona buchwepheshe buphambili ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ukwenza imephu eyona ndawo inkulu kulwandlekazi lwePasifiki, iAtlantiki, iIndiya, iArctic kunye neAntarctic.

Ezinye zezi sayithi ezifana ne-10.924 yeemitha ubunzulu iMariana Trench kwintshona yoLwandlekazi lwePasifiki, ziye zahlolwa izihlandlo ezininzi. Kodwa le projekthi inzulu ezintlanu ikwasuse ukungaqiniseki okushiyekileyo.

Kangangeminyaka, iindawo ezimbini ziye zakhuphisana ngeyona ndawo inzulu kuLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya: inxenye yeJava Trench elunxwemeni lwaseIndonesia kunye nendawo enempazamo kumazantsi-ntshona eOstreliya. Iindlela zokulinganisa ezingqongqo eziqeshwe liqela le-Five Deeps ziqinisekisile ukuba iJava yayiphumelele.

Kodwa ukudandatheka Kuma-7.187 eemitha ubunzulu, eneneni bungaphantsi kweemitha ezingama-387 kunedatha yangaphambili ecetyisiweyo. Ngokunjalo, kuLwandlekazi oluMazantsi, ngoku kukho indawo entsha apho kufuneka sithathele ingqalelo eyona ndawo inzulu. Luxinzelelo olubizwa ngokuba yi-Factorian Abyss, kwisiphelo esisemazantsi se-South Sandwich Trench, kubunzulu be-7.432 yeemitha.

Kulo mjelo omnye, kukho enye enzulu emantla (iMeteor Deep, i-8.265 yeemitha), kodwa ngokobuchwephesha ikuLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki, kuba umgca wokwahlula kunye ne-South Pole uqala kwi-60º latitude emazantsi. Eyona ndawo inzulu kuLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki i Puerto Rico Trench kwi 8.378 yeemitha kwindawo ebizwa Brownson Deep.

Olu hambo luchonge i-Challenger Deep kwi-10.924 yeemitha kwi-Mariana Trench njengeyona ndawo inzulu kuLwandlekazi lwePasifiki, ngaphambi kwe-Horizon Deep (i-10.816 yeemitha) kwi-Tonga Trench.

Bubuphi ubunzulu obuphezulu bolwandle

ukuhlola elwandle

Idatha entsha yobunzulu isanda kupapashwa kwinqaku kwijenali yeGeoscience Data. Umbhali wayo oyintloko ngu UCassie Bongiovanni weCaladan Oceanic LLC, inkampani eyanceda ukuququzelela i-Five Deeps. Olu hambo lwalukhokelwa nguVictor Vescovo, umxhasi wezezimali kunye nomhambi waseTexas.

Owayesakuba nguMkhosi woLwandle lwase-US wayefuna ukuba ngumntu wokuqala embalini ukuntywila kweyona ndawo inzulu kuzo zontlanu iilwandlekazi, kwaye walufeza olo sukelo akufika kwindawo eNorth Pole ebizwa ngokuba yiMolloy Deep (5.551 yeemitha) nge-24 ka-Agasti ka-2019 Kodwa ngelixa uVescovo wayesenza iirekhodi kwinkwili yakhe, iqela lakhe lezenzululwazi lalithatha imilinganiselo engazange ibonwe ngaphambili yobushushu bamanzi kunye netyuwa kuwo onke amanqanaba ukuhla ukuya elwandle.

Olu lwazi luyimfuneko ekulungiseni ufundo olunzulu (olwaziwa ngokuba kukuhla koxinzelelo) ukusuka kwizandi ze-echo kwiinqanawa zokuxhasa ulwandle. Ngoko ke, ubunzulu buchazwa ngokuchanekileyo okukhulu, nokuba banomda wempazamo yokudibanisa okanye thabatha i-15 leemitha.

Ukungazi malunga nokuba yintoni ubunzulu obukhulu bolwandle

Kuncinci okwaziwayo malunga nomhlaba wolwandle. Malunga nama-80% omhlaba ongaphantsi kolwandle kusasele kuza kuvavanywa kusetyenziswa imigangatho yobugcisa bale mihla esetyenziswa yiFive Deeps. Kwisithuba seenyanga ezili-10, ngelixa sasityelele ezi ndawo zintlanu, senze imaphu yommandla olingana nelizwe laseFransi,” ucacise watsho uHeather Stewart, ilungu leqela leBritish Geological Survey. “Kodwa kulo mmandla, kukho omnye ummandla omtsha ngokupheleleyo olingana neFinland, apho ulwandle lungazange lubonwe ngaphambili,” wongezelela. Ngokutsho kweengcali, oku "kubonisa kuphela oko kunokwenziwa kwaye kufuneka kwenziwe."

Lonke ulwazi oluqokelelweyo luya kunikezelwa kwiprojekthi ye-Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030, ejolise ekuveliseni iimephu ezinzulu zolwandle ezivela kwimithombo eyahlukeneyo yedatha ekupheleni kweli shumi leminyaka.

iimephu zolwandle

Ukuphunyezwa kolu hlobo lwemephu kubalulekile ngeendlela ezininzi. Kakade ke, zibalulekile kuhambo kunye nokufakwa kweentambo ezikwinkwili kunye nemibhobho. Ikwasetyenziselwa ulawulo kunye nolondolozo lokuloba, ukususela oko izilwanyana zasendle zikholisa ukuhlanganisana malunga neentaba zolwandle.

Ulwandle ngalunye lusembindini weentlobo ngeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Ngaphaya koko, ulwandle oluphazamisekile luchaphazela ukuziphatha kwemisinga yolwandle kunye nokuxutywa okuthe nkqo kwamanzi. Olu lwazi oluyimfuneko ukuze kuphuculwe iimodeli eziqikelela utshintsho lwemozulu elizayo, ekubeni iilwandle zinendima ebalulekileyo ekuhambiseni ubushushu kwisijikelezi-langa.

Iimephu ezilungileyo zomgangatho wolwandle zibalulekile ukuba sifuna ukuqonda ngokuthe ngqo ukuba umgangatho wolwandle uya kunyuka njani kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zehlabathi.

Yintoni eyaziwayo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku malunga nolwandle

buyintoni ubunzulu bolwandle

Umndilili wobunzulu bolwandle ziinyawo ezingama-14.000. (iikhilomitha ezi-2,65). Eyona ndawo inzulu kulwandlekazi, eyaziwa ngokuba yiChallenger Deep, iphantsi koLwandlekazi lwePasifiki esentshona kumazantsi esiphelo seMariana Trench, kumakhulu eekhilomitha kumzantsi-ntshona welizwe lase-US iGuam. I-Challenger Deep imalunga ne-10,994 yeemitha (36,070 iinyawo) ubunzulu. Yathiywa njalo kuba iHMS Challenger yayiyinqanawa yokuqala ukwenza imilinganiselo yokuqala yobunzulu bomthombo ngo-1875.

Obu bunzulu budlula eyona ntaba iphakamileyo ehlabathini, iMount Everest (8.846 yeemitha = 29.022 iinyawo). Ukuba i-Everest ibikwi-Mariana Trench, ulwandle beluya kuyigubungela, ishiya enye i-1,5 yeekhilomitha (malunga ne-1 mile ubunzulu). Kweyona ndawo inzulu, uxinzelelo lufikelela ngaphezu kwe-15 yeeponti nge-intshi nganye yesikwere. Ukuthelekisa, amanqanaba oxinzelelo lwemihla ngemihla kwinqanaba lolwandle malunga neepounds ezili-15 nge-intshi yesikwere.

Eyona ndawo inzulu yoLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki ifumaneka kwiTrench emantla ePuerto Rico. Lo mjelo uziimitha ezi-8.380 ubunzulu, iikhilomitha ezili-27.493 ubude neekhilomitha ezili-1.750 (iikhilomitha ezingama-1.090) ububanzi. Eyona ndawo inzulu yiMilwaukee Abyss kumntla-ntshona wePuerto Rico.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nobunzulu obukhulu bolwandle.


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