amazwe amanzi

Ukutshintsha kwemeko

Amanzi ngowona mthombo uxabisekileyo ebantwini nakuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo emhlabeni. Esi sixhobo yinto ekwaziyo ukuba kwiimeko ezahlukeneyo ngokwendalo. I amazwe amanzi Zibaluleke kakhulu kumjikelo we-hydrological ukuseka ukuhamba okuqhubekayo kwihlabathi jikelele.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba zeziphi iindawo eziphambili zamanzi, zeziphi iimpawu zabo kunye nokubaluleka kwazo zonke.

amazwe amanzi

amazwe amanzi

Sonke siyazi ukuba yintoni na amanzi kwaye siyazazi iindlela zayo ezintathu, ezaziwa ngokuba ziindawo zayo ezibonakalayo: ulwelo (amanzi), okuqinileyo (umkhenkce), kunye negesi (umphunga). Ezi ntlobo zintathu apho amanzi anokufumaneka kwindalo ngaphandle kokutshintsha ukwakheka kweekhemikhali: H2O (i-hydrogen kunye ne-oksijini).

Ubume bamanzi buxhomekeke kuxinzelelo oluyingqongileyo kunye nobushushu obuvezwayo, oko kukuthi, iimeko zokusingqongileyo. Ngoko ke, ngokulawula le miqathango, amanzi angamalwelo anokuthi aguqulelwe kwisimo esiqinileyo okanye esinerhasi kwaye ngokuchaseneyo.

Ngenxa yokubaluleka kwamanzi kubomi kunye nobuninzi bawo emhlabeni, isimo sakho somzimba sisetyenziswa njengesalathiso kwiinkqubo ezininzi zokulinganisa kwaye ke ngoko inokuthelekiswa nezinye izinto kunye nezinto.

iimpawu zamanzi

amanzi alulwelo

Ngenxa yokuxinana komphezulu, izinambuzane kunye nezigcawu ziyakwazi ukuhamba emanzini. Amanzi yinto engenavumba, engenambala kwaye engenancasa ene-pH engathathi hlangothi (i-7, ingeyo acid okanye ialkaline). Yenziwe ngeeathom ezimbini zehydrogen kunye neathom yeoksijini enye kwimolekyuli nganye.

Amasuntswana aso aneempembelelo ezinkulu ezibambeneyo azibambe kunye, ngoko ke inoxinzelelo olubonakalayo kumphezulu (okuthi ezinye izinambuzane zisebenzise "ukuhamba" emanzini) kwaye ifuna amandla amaninzi ukutshintsha isimo sayo somzimba.

Amanzi aziwa njenge "solvent jikelele" kuba inokunyibilikisa izinto ezininzi kunalo naluphi na olunye ulwelo. Ukongeza, iyikhompawundi ebalulekileyo yobomi kwaye ikhona ngobuninzi kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo. Amanzi agubungela isibini kwisithathu sommandla opheleleyo weplanethi yethu.

Iimeko ezahlukeneyo zamanzi kunye neempawu zabo

Ulwelo

Kwimeko yolwelo, amanzi anolwelo kwaye abhetyebhetye. Elona lizwe sinxulunyaniswa nalo kakhulu lilwelo, lelona lizwe lixineneyo nelingaqondwayo, nelona lininzi kwiplanethi yethu. Kwimeko yolwelo, amasuntswana amanzi asondelelene, kodwa hayi kakhulu kunye. Ngoko ke, amanzi elulwelo anokuguquguquka kunye nokuguquguquka kolwelo, kodwa aphulukana nokumila kwawo ukuthatha ubume besikhongozeli esiquletheyo.

Ngoko ke, amanzi angamanzi afuna iimeko ezithile zamandla (ubushushu, ubushushu) kunye noxinzelelo. Amanzi alulwelo kumaqondo obushushu aphakathi kwe-0 kunye ne-100º C kunye noxinzelelo oluqhelekileyo lwe-atmospheri. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba iphantsi koxinzelelo oluphezulu (amanzi ashushu), inokudlulela kwindawo yokubilisa kwaye kwimeko yolwelo inokufikelela kubushushu obubalulekileyo be-374 ° C, elona qondo lobushushu liphezulu apho irhasi inokunyibilika. Amanzi alulwelo aqhele ukufunyanwa kwiilwandlekazi, kumachibi, emilanjeni, nakwintlenga engaphantsi komhlaba, kodwa akwafumaneka ngaphakathi kwizinto eziphilayo.

Isimo esiqinileyo

Imeko eqinileyo yamanzi, edla ngokubizwa ngokuba ngumkhenkce, Ifumaneka ngokunciphisa ubushushu bayo ukuya kwi-0 ° C okanye ngaphantsi. Enye yezinto ezingaqhelekanga zamanzi angumkhenkce kukuba yongeza umthamo xa kuthelekiswa nolwelo. Oko kukuthi, umkhenkce awuxinana kakhulu kunamanzi (yiyo loo nto umkhenkce udada).

Imbonakalo yomkhenkce inzima, i-brittle kunye ne-transparent, kwaye iyahluka ukusuka kumhlophe ukuya eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, kuxhomekeke kubunyulu kunye nobukhulu boluhlu. Kwezinye iimeko, inokuhlala okwexeshana kwi-semi-solid state ebizwa ngokuba yikhephu.

Amanzi aqinileyo adla ngokufumaneka kwiindawo ezinomkhenkce, ezincotsheni zeentaba, kwi<em>permafrost ( permafrost ), nakwizijikelezi-langa ezingaphandle zommandla wezijikelezi-langa nakwizikhenkcezisi zethu zokutya.

Igesi

Imeko yegesi yamanzi, eyaziwa ngokuba ngumphunga okanye umphunga wamanzi, yinxalenye eqhelekileyo ye-atmosfera yethu kwaye ikhona nakuwo wonke umoya esiwuphefumlayo. Kuxinzelelo oluphantsi okanye ubushushu obuphezulu, amanzi aba ngumphunga kwaye athande ukunyuka ngenxa yokuba umphunga wamanzi ungaphantsi kunomoya.

Logama nje umntu ekwinqanaba lolwandle (1 atmosphere), ukutshintshela kwisimo segesi kwenzeka kwi-100°C.. Amanzi anegesi enza amafu esiwabona esibhakabhakeni, akumoya esiwuphefumlayo (ingakumbi ukuphefumla kwethu), nakwinkungu ebonakala ngeentsuku ezibandayo nezifumileyo. Ukuba sibeka imbiza yamanzi ukuba ibile, sinokuyibona.

Utshintsho kubume bamanzi

iintlobo zamazwe amanzi

Njengoko sibonile kwezinye iimeko zangaphambili, amanzi anokutshintsha ukusuka kwelinye ilizwe ukuya kwelinye ngokutshintsha iimeko zawo zobushushu. Oku kunokwenziwa kwicala elinye okanye kwelinye, kwaye siya kunika inkqubo nganye eyahlukileyo igama layo:

  • Ukuguquka kwamanzi. Ukutshintsha ukusuka kulwelo ukuya kwirhasi kwandisa ubushushu bamanzi ukuya kwi-100°C. Yiloo nto eyenzekayo emanzini abilayo, yiyo loo nto ibonakala ngokuqhwala.
  • Ukujiya. Utshintsho ukusuka kwigesi ukuya kulwelo ngokulahleka kobushushu. Yiloo nto eyenzekayo xa umphunga wamanzi ujiya kwisibuko sokuhlambela: umphezulu wesipili upholile kwaye umphunga ofakwe kuwo uba lulwelo.
  • Kuyabanda. Ukutshintsha ukusuka kulwelo ukuya kokuqinileyo kwehlisa ubushushu bamanzi ngaphantsi kwe-0°C. Amanzi aba ngumkhenkce, edala umkhenkce, njengoko esenza kwiifriji zethu okanye kwiincopho zeentaba.
  • Ukunyibilika: Jika amanzi aqinileyo abe lulwelo, ubushushu abe ngumkhenkce. Le nkqubo iqhelekile kwaye inokubonwa xa songeza iqhwa kwisiselo.
  • I-Sublimation. Inkqubo yokutshintsha ukusuka kwisimo segesi ukuya kwisimo esiqinileyo, kule meko ukusuka kumphunga wamanzi ngokuthe ngqo kwiqhwa okanye ikhephu. Ukuze oku kwenzeke, iimeko ezikhethekileyo zobushushu kunye noxinzelelo ziyafuneka, yiyo loo nto le nto yenzeka ezincotsheni zeentaba, umzekelo, kwimbalela e-Antarctica, apho kungekho manzi alulwelo.
  • UReverse Sublimation: Ukuguqulwa ngokuthe ngqo kwesiqina ukuya kwigesi, oko kukuthi, ukusuka kumkhenkce ukuya kumphunga. Sinokuyibona kwiindawo ezomileyo kakhulu, ezifana ne-polar tundra ngokwayo okanye iincopho zeentaba, apho njengoko imitha yelanga isanda, ininzi ye-ice sublimates ngokuthe ngqo kwi-gas ngaphandle kokuhamba kwisigaba solwelo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga namazwe amanzi kunye neempawu zawo.


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