Zenziwa njani iintaba

Zenziwa njani iintaba kwisijikelezi-langa?

Intaba yaziwa njengokuphakama kwendalo komhlaba kwaye iyimveliso yamandla etectonic, idla ngokuba ngaphezu kweemitha ezingama-700 ngaphezu kwesiseko sayo. Le miphakamo yomhlaba idla ngokudityaniswa ngokweenduli okanye iintaba, kwaye inokuba mfutshane kangangeekhilomitha ezininzi ubude. Ukususela ekuqaleni koluntu uye wahlala ezibuza Zenziwa njani iintaba.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela indlela iintaba ezenziwe ngayo, iimpawu zabo kunye neenkqubo ze-geological.

yintoni intaba

ukungqubana kwepleyiti

Iintaba ziye zathimba ingqalelo yomntu ukususela kumaxesha amandulo, ngokufuthi ngokwenkcubeko ezinxulumene nokuphakama, ukusondela kuThixo (izulu), okanye njengomzekeliso womzamo oqhubekayo wokufumana imbono enkulu okanye engcono. Ngokwenene, ukunyuka intaba ngumdlalo onzima kakhulu obaluleke kakhulu xa siqwalasela ipesenti eyaziwayo yesi sijikelezi-langa sethu.

Zininzi iindlela zokuhlela iintaba. Umzekelo, kuxhomekeke kubude obunokwahlulwa ibe (ukusuka kwencinci ukuya kwenkulu): iinduli neentaba. Ngokunjalo, zinokuhlelwa ngokwemvelaphi yazo njenge: intaba-mlilo, ukusonga okanye ukusonga-iimpazamo.

Okokugqibela, amaqela eentaba anokwahlulwa ngokwemilo yawo edityanisiweyo: ukuba adityaniswe ngobude, sizibiza ngokuba ziintaba; ukuba zidityaniswe ngendlela ethe kratya okanye engqukuva, sizibiza ngokuba zii-massifs. Iintaba zigubungela indawo enkulu yomhlaba: I-53% evela e-Asia, i-25% evela eYurophu, i-17% evela e-Australia kunye ne-3% evela e-Afrika, i-24% iyonke. Kuba malunga ne-10% yabemi behlabathi bahlala kwiindawo ezisezintabeni, onke amanzi emilambo enzeka phezu kweentaba.

Zenziwa njani iintaba

Zenziwa njani iintaba

Ukwakheka kweentaba, ezaziwa ngokuba yi-orogeny, emva koko kuphenjelelwa zizinto zangaphandle ezinjengokhukuliseko okanye ukunyakaza kwe-tectonic. Iintaba zivela kwi-deformations kwi-crust yomhlaba, ngokuqhelekileyo ekudibaneni kwamacwecwe amabini e-tectonic, athi, xa eqhuba amandla omnye komnye, yenza ukuba lithosphere isonge, kunye nomthambo omnye ohlayo kwaye omnye unyuke, udala umqolo ohlukeneyo wokuphakama

Kwezinye iimeko, le nkqubo yempembelelo ibangela ukuba umaleko uzibeke ngaphantsi komhlaba, othi unyibilike bubushushu buze buvelise i<em>magma, ethi ithi emva koko inyuke iye phezulu yenze intaba-mlilo.

Ukwenza kube lula, siza kuchaza indlela iintaba ezenziwe ngayo ngovavanyo. Kolu vavanyo, siza kuchaza indlela iintaba ezenziwe ngayo ngendlela elula. Ukuze kwenzeke, sifuna nje: I-Plasticine yemibala eyahlukeneyo, iincwadi ezimbalwa kunye ne-rolling pin.

Okokuqala, ukuqonda indlela iintaba zenziwa ngayo, siya kuqhuba ukulinganisa okulula komaleko womhlaba woMhlaba. Kule nto siza kusebenzisa iplastiki enemibala. Kumzekelo wethu, sikhethe okuluhlaza, omdaka kunye noorenji.

Iplastiki eluhlaza ilinganisa uqweqwe lwelizwekazi loMhlaba. Enyanisweni, olu qweqwe luziikhilomitha ezingama-35 ubukhulu. Ukuba uqweqwe belungenziwanga, uMhlaba ngewugutyungelwe ngokupheleleyo lulwandlekazi lwehlabathi.

I-plasticine emdaka ihambelana ne-lithosphere, umaleko ongaphandle we-terrestrial sphere. Ubunzulu bayo buyaguquguquka phakathi kwe-10 kunye ne-50 yeekhilomitha. Intshukumo yalo maleko yileyo yeepleyiti zetectonic ezincam zazo kulapho i-geological phenomena zenziwa khona.

Ekugqibeleni, udongwe lwe-orange luyi-asthenosphere yethu, ephantsi kwe-lithosphere kwaye iphezulu yengubo. Olu luhlu luphantsi koxinzelelo olukhulu kunye nobushushu kangangokuba luziphatha ngeplastiki, luvumela ukuhamba kwe-lithosphere.

iindawo zentaba

iintaba ezinkulu ehlabathini

Iintaba zidla ngokuyilwa:

  • Emazantsi onyawo okanye ukubunjwa kwesiseko, ngokuqhelekileyo emhlabeni.
  • Ingqungquthela, incopho okanye i-cusp. Inxalenye ephezulu neyokugqibela, isiphelo senduli, ifikelela kowona mgangatho uphakamileyo unokwenzeka.
  • induli okanye isiketi. Joyina amacandelo asezantsi nangaphezulu ethambeka.
  • Inxalenye yethambeka phakathi kweencopho ezimbini (iintaba ezimbini) ezenza ukudakumba okuncinci okanye ukudakumba.

Imozulu kunye nohlaza

Iimozulu zeentaba zixhomekeke ngokubanzi kwizinto ezimbini: ubude bakho kunye nokuphakama kwentaba. Ubushushu kunye noxinzelelo lomoya zihlala zisezantsi kwiindawo eziphakamileyo, ngokwesiqhelo kwi-5 °C ngekhilomitha yobude.

Okufanayo kwenzeka ngemvula, exhaphake kakhulu kwiindawo eziphakamileyo, ngoko kunokwenzeka ukuba iindawo ezimanzi zifumaneka kwiincopho zeentaba kunasemathafeni, ngakumbi apho kuzalelwa khona imilambo emikhulu. Ukuba uyaqhubeka nokunyuka, ukufuma kunye namanzi aya kujika abe yikhephu kwaye ekugqibeleni abe ngumkhenkce.

Uhlaza lwasentabeni luxhomekeke kakhulu kwimozulu kunye nendawo ekuyo intaba. Kodwa ngokuqhelekileyo kwenzeka ngokuthe ngcembe ngendlela ephazamisayo njengoko unyuka kwithambeka. Ngoko ke, kwimigangatho esezantsi, kufuphi namazantsi entaba, amathafa ajikelezileyo okanye amahlathi eentaba atyebileyo ngohlaza, anamahlathi ashinyeneyo, kwaye made.

Kodwa njengoko unyuka, ezona ntlobo zixhathisayo zithatha indawo, zithatha ithuba lokulondoloza amanzi kunye nemvula eninzi. Ngaphezulu kweendawo ezinemithi, ukungabikho kweoksijini kuvakala kwaye uhlaza luyancitshiswa lube ngamadlelo anezihlahla kunye neengca ezincinci. Ngenxa yoko, iincopho zeentaba zithanda ukomisa ngakumbi, ngakumbi ezo zigqunywe likhephu nomkhenkce.

Iintaba ezintlanu eziphakamileyo

Iintaba ezintlanu ezinde ehlabathini zezi:

  • Mount Everest. Iphakame kangangeemitha ezingama-8.846 XNUMX, yeyona ntaba iphakamileyo ehlabathini, esencotsheni yeeHimalaya.
  • Iintaba ze-K2. Enye yeentaba ezinzima kakhulu ukunyuka emhlabeni, kwi-8611 yeemitha ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle. Iphakathi kweTshayina nePakistan.
  • Kachenjunga. Ibekwe phakathi kweIndiya neNepal, kumphakamo weemitha ezingama-8598. Igama layo liguqulela ngokuthi "ubuncwane obuhlanu phakathi kwekhephu."
  • eAconcagua. Ifumaneka kwiiAndes zaseArgentina kwiphondo laseMendoza, le ntaba iphakame kangangeemitha ezingama-6.962 kwaye yeyona ncopho iphakamileyo kumazwe aseMerika.
  • I-Snowy Ojos del Salado. Yistratovolcano, inxalenye yeentaba zeAndes, ezikumda ophakathi kweChile neArgentina. Yeyona ntaba-mlilo iphakamileyo ehlabathini inobude obuziimitha ezingama-6891,3.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nendlela iintaba ezenziwe ngayo kunye neempawu zazo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.