Canama Canal

Ukubaluleka kwepanama canal

El Umjelo wePanama Yindlela ehamba phakathi kolwandle enqumla ilizwekazi laseMelika ekuphakameni kwePanama. Enkosi kweli jelo, uLwandle lweCaribbean kunye noLwandlekazi lweAtlantic lunokudityaniswa kuLwandlekazi lwePasifiki. Yindlela ebaluleke kakhulu kwezoqoqosho ebantwini.

Ke ngoko, siza kulinikela eli nqaku ukuba likuxelele zonke iimpawu, ukubaluleka kwezoqoqosho kunye nembali yePanama Canal.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Umsele wePanama

Yindlela enqumla kwisiqwenga sePanama kwindawo yayo emxinwa. Ngenkqubo yezitshixo kwisiphelo ngasinye Bonyusa amaphenyane ukuya kuthi ga kwiimitha ezingama-26 ngaphezulu komphakamo wolwandle kwaye babakhokelele eGatun Lake. Ezi ziphelo zizalisa ngamanzi zize zenze ichibi elenziweyo elehlelayo kwelinye icala linciphise kakhulu amaxesha okuhamba kunye nonxibelelwano lwaselwandle.

Ngaphambi kokuvulwa kwala majelo, iinqanawa kwakufuneka zehle kwi-Strait yaseMagellan naseCape Horn. Ezi ndawo zimbini zezona ndawo zisemazantsi kwilizwekazi lase Mzantsi Melika ukuze zikwazi ukuwela ukusuka kulwandlekazi ukuya kolunye. Ulwakhiwo lwePanama Canal ngomnye wemisebenzi emikhulu yobunjineli behlabathi ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Imbali yeCanama Canal

ukusebenza kwe-panama canal

Masishwankathele ngokufutshane imbali yeli jelo. Umhlaba wasePanama wawusele usetyenziswa ngabemi bomthonyama bangaphambi kweColumbian ukuze bakwazi ukuhamba phakathi kolwandlekazi nolunye. Lonke olu lwazi lwadluliselwa kwiSpanish ngexesha lokoyisa. Kakhulu kangangokuba UKumkani uCharles I ngonyaka we-1524 yacebisa ukwenziwa kwejelo eliza kubonelela ngamaxesha ohambo phakathi kwePeru neSpain. Kodwa imeko yezobuchwephesha nezemali zaseYurophu ayizange ivumele loo mzuzu.

Ngexesha le-XNUMX leminyaka, kwavela umbono wokwakha umjelo kulwandle lwaseNicaragua, kodwa yonke le nkqubo yokwakha kwafuneka iyeke ngenxa yezopolitiko. Namhlanje, olu luvo luvuselelwe. Yayiyindalo eyaziwayo yaseJamani ngaphesheya kwesiqithi sasePanamani eyabeka iziseko zethiyori zokumbiwa komjelo kunye neprojekthi kabani yaziswa nguFerdinand de Lesseps kwiminyaka elishumi kamva. Le ndoda yaba usomashishini kunye injineli French.

Ubungakanani beli jelo elidibanisa izibuko laseBalboa kunye neCristóbal ziikhilomitha ezingama-77 ubude. Ingxaki iphantse ibe ziimitha ezingama-39 ukuphakama kunye neenyawo ezili-110 ubude. Bamba malunga neenyawo ezili-106 zamanzi. Ukuwela wonke umjelo kuhlala kuthatha iiyure ezisi-8. Oku kusinika umbono wokuba mde kangakanani.

Iiprojekthi zokwakha umjelo wePanama

Kukho iiprojekthi ezininzi zokwakha lo mjelo ukusukela oko zavulwa ngo-1914. Le projekthi yagqithiselwa kwinkampani yaseFrance ngexesha likarhulumente iRiphabhlikhi yaseNew Granada ngelo xesha ngo-1839. Nangona kunjalo, kwakusaziwa ukuba ukwakhiwa kwalo msele kunzima kakhulu kubasebenzi, urhulumente, njl. Ngenxa yoko, inkampani yaseFrance yaphulukana nomdla kwaye yarhoxa kwisivumelwano kungekudala emva koko. Ngo-1879 yayingu-French Ferdinand de Lesseps owathatha yonke iprojekthi emva kokugqiba iSuez Canal e-Egypt. Sele enamava ngakumbi kwaye efuna ukuwufaka kwiPanama Canal.

Ngendlela eyaqala ngayo imisebenzi ngo-1881 phakathi kwabo bonke ubhubhane womkhuhlane otyheli, imiceli mngeni ebangelwe yindawo uqobo kunye nokufumanisa urhwaphilizo lwamashishini olwaziwa namhlanje njengePanama Scandal. Imisebenzi iyekile kunyaka olandelayo kuba inyikima eyomeleleyo yashukumisa wonke lo mhlaba. Inkxaso-mali yeprojekthi yaphela ngo-1888 yaza yashiywa ngokupheleleyo. Kungoko amaMelika angenelele ukuze aqhubeke neprojekthi yenkulungwane ye-1914 kwaye, ngokorhulumente wasePanamani, yavula iingcango zomjelo ngo-XNUMX.

Elona nqanaba liphezulu lokusebenza kwafikelelwa kulo ngo-1963. Ngo-2006, iprojekthi yokwandisa iPanama Canal ekugqibeleni yabhengezwa. ngokutshixa okutsha ukuba nendawo enkulu yokugcwala elwandle. Esi sigqibo singenisiwe kwireferendamu eyaziwayo kwaye savunywa sisininzi sabantu abavotayo. Imisebenzi iqale kunyaka olandelayo, kwaye iphele ngo-2016 ngoJuni ngenxa yothotho lokulibaziseka kunye nengxaki yemali.

Ulawulo, ulawulo nokubaluleka kwezoqoqosho

ubude bomsebenzi

Okwangoku iPanama Canal iphantsi kolawulo lwePanamani. Olu lawulo lwalunikezelwe ngokungagungqiyo eUnited States wakuba umsele wenziwe. Olu xinzelelo lwalunempikiswano okoko oorhulumente abalandelayo bafaka isimangalo okanye baphinda bafumana ubukhosi kulo msele. Bazama nabo fumana umcu weekhilomitha ezisibhozo ngeenxa zonke kuwo ekwakudluliselwe kuwo.

Okwangoku, iphantsi kolawulo lwePanama kwaye ezinye thethwano zenziwe malunga nokuhanjiswa kolawulo lomsele kumagunya asekuhlaleni. Eli jelo libalulekile kuhambo lokurhweba kwihlabathi liphela. Kwaye iibhanki ezininzi zakhiwa ngegama lePanamax, oko kwakuthetha ukuba banemilinganiselo ephezulu eyoneleyo yokukwazi ukuhambisa ubude nobubanzi bomjelo ngaphandle kwengxaki. Zazizizikhephe njengeenjongo zorhwebo ezazifanele ukudlula kweli jelo kwaye zilungelelanise uyilo lwazo kubungakanani ukuze zingangxaki.

Ngokumalunga nokubaluleka, kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba ngowona mthombo mkhulu womsebenzi kunye nengeniso yesizwe. Ukuvulwa komjelo kuvumele ukuhamba ngokukhawuleza nangokubanzi kokutshintshiselana ngokuthengisa elwandle. Konke oku kube nefuthe elihle kuqoqosho lwehlabathi luvumela ulungelelwaniso olukhulu phakathi kwamazwe ahambele phambili kunye nalawo asaphuhlayo.

Ikwathetha ukuba ngumthombo obalulekileyo womsebenzi kunye nengeniso yesizwe kunye nezinto ezithile zommandla kwaye ngakumbi abantu basePanama.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi ngePanama Canal, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka kwezoqoqosho.


Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa. ezidingekayo ziphawulwe *

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.