Río de la Plata

izityalo nezilwanyana zaseRio de la Plata

El Umlambo wesilivere, luhlaselo lweAtlantiki oluhlayo kunxweme olusempuma yoMzantsi Merika, phakathi kweUruguay emantla neArgentina emazantsi. Ngokuqhelekileyo ithathwa njengomlomo wemilambo yeParaná kunye ne-Uruguay, nangona ezinye izazi ngejografi ziluthatha njengolwandle olusemdeni wegophe okanye uLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki kwaye abanye baluthatha njengomlambo. Inokubaluleka okukhulu kwezoqoqosho kunye nangokwezityalo kunye nezilwanyana.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuyazi malunga neRío de la Plata kunye neempawu zayo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Umlambo wesilivere

I-Río de la Plata ifana nechweba apho amanzi ahlambulukileyo kunye namanzi etyuwa axutywa. Amanzi ayo amnandi aphuma komnye wemilambo mide ehlabathini, iParaná kunye netheko layo eliphambili, iParaguay, kunye neUruguay kunye neminye imisinga emincinci.

I-Río de la Plata ifumana amanzi kwimithombo yemilambo yaseParaguay neParaná, egubungela inxalenye enkulu yombindi-mazantsi oMzantsi Merika; indawo yokuhambisa amanzi iphelele malunga ne-1,2 yezigidi zeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha (i-3,2 yezigidi zeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha), malunga noninzi lommandla womhlaba welizwekazi.

I-Paraná Delta kunye nomlomo woMlambo wase-Uruguay ibekwe phezulu kweRío de la Plata. Ububanzi bechweba lechweba ngokuthe ngcembe buyanda ukusuka kumanzi aphambili ukuya elwandle. I-La Plata ingaphezu komlambo, ngowona mlambo mkhulu emhlabeni kunye nommandla omalunga ne-13.500 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha.

Ulwandle oluntywiliselweyo lweBarra del Indio lusebenza njengesithintelo esahlula i-Río de la Plata ibe yizowuni yomlambo wamanzi acwengileyo kunye nendawo yechweba lechweba elingaphandle. Ibhanki imalunga nesiqingatha phakathi kweMontevideo kunye nePonta Piedras. Ngamanzi acocekileyo angaphakathi abantu abaninzi abawachaza njengomlambo.

Ukufikelela phezulu kuneziqithi ezininzi, kubandakanya iziqithi zaseOyavid kunye neSolís kumanzi aseArgentina, kunye neJuncal, Elmaton, Martín García kunye neTimo Domínguez kumanzi ase-Uruguayan. Iziqithi zePlata zivame ukukhula ngokuhamba kwexesha ngenxa yokubekwa kweentlenga ezibangelwa yimithwalo ephezulu yangoku eziswa yi-tributaries yomlambo.

I-Hydrology ye-River Plate

ungcoliseko lomlambo

Isantya seParaná yangoku sitshintsha rhoqo kwixesha elide le. Kwi-Alto Paraná, xa umbhede womlambo ukhula (ngokukodwa xa i-echibi yenyani ifom, njengakwidama lase-Itaipu), isantya siyancipha, kwaye apho umbhede womlambo uyancipha (njengama-canyons e-Itaipu ezantsi) kuya kukhawuleza kakhulu.

Ukuya ezantsi, wehlisa isantya kwindlela yakhe eya ePosadas, kodwa emva koko watyhutyha uthotho lweerapids kunye nokubaleka. Yacotha kwakhona iCorrientes, izinzisa ukuhamba kwayo kumyinge we-2,5 yeekhilomitha ngeyure kwindlela eya eRío de la Plata.

Isitya sonke soMlambo waseParaguay igubungela ngaphezu kwe-380 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha kwaye ayifane iphakame ngaphezu kwe-000 yeenyawo ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle.. Ngenxa yoko, ukuthambeka komlambo kuyahluka kancinci kakhulu kumgama omde, malunga ne-1,2 ukuya kwi-1,6 yeesentimitha ngekhilomitha.

Imilambo emininzi kwindawo enamanzi anamaza aphantsi, okanye amanqanaba endalo, athi enzeka xa iindawo eziqukuqelayo zomlambo zifakwe ngamaxesha eempuphuma. Xa umlambo wawuhla, iindonga zawo zahlala phezu komgangatho wamanzi wethafa elimelene nalo. Ebudeni bomkhukula, amanzi ahlala ehleli, ngokufuthi ukuya kuthi ga kwiikhilomitha ezili-15 ububanzi, alala phantsi komfula. ukuntywilisela indawo engaphezulu malunga neekhilomitha ezingama-38,600 zesikwere.

Umlambo waseParaguay unomlambo oguquguqukayo phakathi komthombo wawo kunye nokudibana kwawo noMlambo iParaná. Ngaphezulu kweCorumbá eBrazil, inendawo eqhelekileyo yetropiki enendawo ephezulu ngoFebruwari kwaye iphantsi kwayo ngoJulayi-Agasti. Ngezantsi kweCorumbá, indawo ephezulu kakhulu ivela ngoJulayi kwaye indawo ephantsi kakhulu ivela ngoDisemba-Januwari.

Ungcoliseko lweRiver Plate

isilivere yomlambo

Ungcoliseko oluvela kwimimandla yasezidolophini kunye nezolimo lukhokelele abanye ukuba babhale iRío de la Plata kunye nemimandla emincinci yayo njenge "yona ndawo ingcolisekileyo kwendalo" eArgentina. Kuqhelekile ukuba inkunkuma kunye nelindle lidada emlanjeni. Nangona iNkundla Ephakamileyo yaseArgentina yacela ngo-2008 isicwangciso esisemthethweni sokususa lo mlambo, akukho nto ingako yathatyathwayo.

Ngokomzekelo, ngo-2008 kwakukho iindawo zokulahla inkunkuma ezivulekileyo ezili-141 ezinemizi-mveliso, imichiza, kunye nenkunkuma yasekhaya ecaleni komlambo iMatanza ukusuka entshona yeBuenos Aires ukuya eRío de la Plata.

Ngokwesicwangciso sokucoca, indawo yokulahla inkunkuma bekufanele ivalwe ngo-2010, kodwa ezinye iindawo zokulahla inkunkuma ezingama-207 zachazwa, okuzisa inani lilonke ukuya kuma-348. Ukongeza kwinkunkuma kunye nemithwalo yemichiza evela ezixekweni, ukwanda kokuchumisa komhlaba weefama ngasemlanjeni nako kwandisa i-microcystins kunye ne-eutrophication ephakathi.

Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana

Ubomi bezityalo kwingingqi enkulu yaseRío de la Plata buhluke kakhulu. Empuma, kumantla eParaná basin nakwiindawo eziphakamileyo, kukho amahlathi anemithi exabisekileyo ehlala iluhlaza njengeparaná pine for the cork oak.

Ummandla osentshona ubukhulu becala yindawo enengca yokutyiswa kweenkomo. Kwimimandla ekhukulisekileyo, kukho iihyacinths ezintle zamanzi, iinyibiba zasemanzini zaseAmazon, imithi yamaxilongo neeguama ezichumayo kuloo migxobhozo.

Imithi yesundu efana ne-muriti kunye ne-carandá ikhula ecaleni kwemilambo kunye nemilambo, kunye nemithi emininzi yequebracho ekukholelwa ukuba yimithombo ye-tannins. Kwingingqi yaseGran Chaco kwintshona yeParaguay, apho umhlaba usetyenziselwa ikakhulu iinkomo, kukho iipatches zezihlahla ze-arboreal kunye ne-herbaceous savannas, kunye nezihlahla ezinameva ezinyamezela imbalela.

I-River Plate e-Argentina Likhaya lehlengesi laseLa Plata elinqabileyo kunye neentlobo ezininzi zamafudo olwandle:

  • UCaretta caretta.
  • I-Chelonia mydas.
  • I-dermochelys coriacea.

Butyebile kubomi bezilwanyana, kuquka neentlobo ezithile ezikhethekileyo. Iidolphin zesilivere zinokufunyanwa kulo lonke elasechwebeni nakunxweme lweAtlantiki, njengeminenga.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neRío de la Plata kunye neempawu zayo.


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