Umlambo we-Ebro

ukuhamba komlambo ebro

Isityebi ngamabali kunye neendawo zomhlaba, i Umlambo we-Ebro Isenza sibe nombono wemihlaba emihle, iintlambo, iintaba nezixeko ezintle, sibe nelungelo lokuyibona ihamba iikhilomitha ezingama-930 ubude, nto leyo eyenza ibe ngowona mlambo umde eSpeyin. Kwindawo yesibini, emva komlambo i-Duero kwi-Peninsula yase-Iberia.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga noMlambo i-Ebro, iimpawu zayo, umlomo kunye nokunye okuninzi.

Iimpawu eziphambili

ukungcoliseka kwemilambo

Umlambo i-Ebro uthathwa njengowona mlambo mde kwaye mkhulu eSpain kwaye indlela yawo ingaphakathi kommandla waseSpain ngokupheleleyo, yenye yezona mpawu zibalulekileyo kuba ikwinqanaba lokuqala kwihlabathi kulo mgca.

Ngokuphathelele indawo yoMlambo i-Ebro, abantu abaninzi bayazibuza ukuba umlambo we-Ebro uqala phi. Izalelwa eCantabria, kwaye umlambo i-Ebro uqukuqela kuLwandle lweMeditera ukuya eTarragona, eSpain. Indlela yomlambo i-Ebro iqala ePico Tres Mares kumgama oziimitha ezingama-2.175 ngaphezulu komphakamo wolwandle, kulwahlulo phakathi kwezitya ezithathu ezahlukeneyo zeSierra de Hijar, apho amanzi ehla ezantsi kwithambeka esiya kwiilwandle ezintathu ezikumda wepeninsula, iNanza kunye Imilambo yaseCantabrian ijikelezwe lulwandle, umlambo iPisurga ujikeleze ulwandle lweAtlantiki, kwaye umlambo i-Ebro umda woLwandle lweMeditera.

Idlula kwindawo yeCampoo Los Valles okanye iValle de Campoo ide ifike kwi-Ebro Gorge ngephondo laseBurgos. Inqunyulwa yiPyrenees, inkqubo yaseIberia kunye neenduli zaseYurophu.

Ukuhamba ukusuka eBurgos ukuya eLa Rioja kuLuntu lwaseSpain, ukusuka apho iLas Conchas de Haro okanye iConchas de Ebro yenziwe, indawo yendalo yekalika enika ubomi kwindalo engenakuthelekiswa nanto, ehamba kwiidolophu ezininzi zaseSpain de ifike eLogroño, Ikomkhulu laseLa Rioja. Ukusuka kokugqibela ukuya eNavarra, uhlamba kwiidolophu ezahlukeneyo endleleni, nganye inomlingiswa wayo kunye nembali, de ufikelele eCatalonia.

Umlomo woMlambo i-Ebro

Umlambo we-Ebro

Umlomo woMlambo i-Ebro ukwidolophu yaseTarragona, eyenza i-delta emlonyeni woLwandle lweMeditera. Kukho esona siqithi sikhulu saseBuda eCatalonia, kwaye ukuhamba komlambo kwahlulwe kwiingalo ezimbini ezibizwa ngokuba yiGolas Norte kunye neGolas Sur. Kukwakho ne-Ebro Delta Natural Park, leyo igubungela i-20% yedelta kunye neenzuzo zokuba yindawo ekhuselweyo ngokusemthethweni. Umlambo iSegura usaphuma kolu lwandle.

Idalwe ngo-1983, le paki ngowona mgxobhozo mkhulu eCatalonia, ineehektare ezingama-7.802; imimandla yezolimo, ingakumbi amasimi erayisi, athatha i80% eseleyo, iyonke engaphezulu kweehektare ezingama-21.000, nto leyo ethetha kakhulu ngokubaluleka kwezi zityalo kulo mmandla.

Ukuhamba komlambo i-Ebro malunga ne-600 cubic metres ngomzuzwana, kodwa ivelele ngokuhluka kwayo, kuba inokusuka kwi-440 cubic metres kwinyanga enye ukuya kuma-2896 eekyubhic metres kwenye. Izikhukula zemilambo zixhaphake kakhulu ngexesha lengqele, eyona idume kakubi neyonakalisayo zezo zenzeka eCastejón naseZaragoza.

Kubekho ukuhla okuphawulekayo ukususela kwi-1960s (18.286,7 hm3 / ngonyaka) kude kube kulo nyaka we-2017, Idolophu yase-El Pilar yayinokukhutshwa okuncinci kwe-35 m3 / s. I-Duero ayikho kwimeko entle, kunye nokuhamba kwe-6 m3 / s ngo-Agasti walo nyaka.

Umlambo we-Orinoco wabhengezwa ulumkile ngenxa yamanqanaba aphezulu amanzi, kuba wawusondele kakhulu ukudlula uphawu lwe-1976 xa ufikelele ngaphezu kweemitha ezingama-35 ukuphakama, okubangela izikhukhula kwiindawo eziphantsi.

Isitya somlambo i-Ebro

Ngunxantathu kwaye Inommandla oziikhilomitha ezingama-85.362 kwaye inesabelo esikhulu eSpain. Ukwadlala kwiindawo zokubeka ezimbalwa eAndorra naseFransi. Owona mmandla unabantu abaninzi okanye isixeko yiZaragoza, okwangoku idlula abantu abangama-700.000 (2017) Esona sikhululo sikhulu se-hydrographic emhlabeni nguMlambo i-Amazon, ogubungela indawo ye-6,1 yezigidi zeekhilomitha.

Kuqikelelwa ukuba abakhenkethi abazizigidi ezisisi-1,7 bandwendwela i-Ebro esezantsi minyaka le, behamba kwaye behamba, besebenzisa iibhafu zayo ezishushu, ukuloba kunye nenkampu ukuze baziqhelanise nemidlalo egqithisileyo efana ne-canyoning, i-rafting, i-kayaking nokunye.

Iinkqubo

izikhukula

Kukho izisongelo ezininzi kumlambo we-Ebro, kubandakanywa ungcoliseko, ukuhla kunye nezikhukhula, ezisongela kwaye zibangele iintlekele ezininzi, ezichazwe ngezantsi. I-Zaragoza yayiyindawo yokugqibela yokuchatshazelwa kukukhukula okunamandla komlambo, ngakumbi nangakumbi ngenxa yeemvula eziqhubekayo kunye nokungabikho kokubona kwangaphambili kwabemi, kunye nokungakhathali kwelizwe, ukungabikho kwenkqubo ye-dredging, eyabangela umonakalo omkhulu kunye nomonakalo ebantwini, ukucocwa kunye nokukhuselwa komlambo.

Ithuba lokutshona kwi-Ebro Delta ayikude, nge ngaphantsi kwe 50% yomphezulu wayo ongaphantsi komphakamo wolwandle. Oku kungenxa yobuntununtunu kutshintsho lwemozulu olubangela ukunyuka komgangatho wolwandle. Imisebenzi yezolimo, iifama kunye nemizi-mveliso iyaqhubeka nokudala umonakalo kwindawo. E-Spain, i-ecosystem yomlambo ye-Ebro iyancipha kwaye umgangatho wokubonelela ngamanzi kubemi be-basin uyanda.

Ubukho be-nitrate, i-ammonium, i-nitrite, i-pesticides kunye nezinye izinto zekhemikhali kwi-3 yezigidi zeehektare zomhlaba olimekayo nazo zinegalelo ekuwohlokeni komhlaba, amadama kunye nabanye. Oku kunokubonwa kwimilambo emininzi eMelika, eYurophu nakwamanye amazwekazi, eArgentina uMlambo iParaná ungomnye wabo.

amadama

Ngokuchasene neenzuzo zokuba neengxangxasi ezingaphezulu kwe-457 kunye nezityalo zombane wamanzi, kuthathwa njengesongelo kubomi obuqhelekileyo bomlambo kunye nabemi bayo, ngakumbi eRibarroja, Flix kunye neMequinenza kwi-Lower Ebro. Ukongeza kule ikhoyo, iSpain wenze isindululo sesicwangciso sobume bonyaka ka-2010-2015, apho kucwangciswe ukufakela izityalo ezivelisa umbane ngakumbi. ukwandisa umthamo wayo wangoku we-3.894,5 Mw, usebenzisa i-38.000 hm3 yamanzi ngonyaka.

Njengoko ubona, kukho izizathu ezininzi zokuba lo mlambo ubaluleke kakhulu eSpeyin. Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga noMlambo wase-Ebro, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka komlomo wayo.


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