Ukwanda kwekhephu

ii-avalanches ezantsi kwentaba

Ngaba wakha weva nge Ukwanda kwekhephu. Ikhephu elinobundlobongela elenzeka ngesiquphe. Inokubandakanya zombini i-substrates kunye nezinto njengenxalenye yomhlaba oqinileyo kunye nohlaza. Abantu abaninzi abazi kakuhle ukuba bajongane njani nekhephu okanye ukuba ivela phi.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuba likuxelele yonke into oyifunayo malunga neempawu, imvelaphi kunye nesenzo ebusweni bekhephu.

Iimpawu eziphambili

iibhasi ezingcwatyelweyo

Yibhloko enkulu yekhephu, ethi ekugqibeleni iwele ezintabeni ngenxa yokuqokelelana kwekhephu. Yithambeka nekhephu ezidibanisayo ezibangela ukuntlitheka kobunzima bekhephu. Masingakulibali ukuba umxhuzulane uhlala usenza into yawo kwaye urhuqa lonke ikhephu kwindawo yalo ephantsi.

Ezona mpawu ziphambili ze-avalanches kukuhamba ngokukhawuleza kunye nesantya sokuhamba. Nokuba ziziphithiphithi zamatye, udaka, umkhenkce nekhephu, njl. Xa sibhekisa kwingxondorha yelitye, liqela lamatye ethambekeni athi, ngenxa yemozulu yomzimba okanye yemichiza, ekugqibeleni aqhekeze azinzise ngenxa yomxhuzulane.

Kubantu abaninzi, esi sesinye seziganeko zendalo ezinomtsalane, kodwa ikwayingozi kakhulu. Uninzi lwabashushumbisi bangashenxisa ezantsi ngesantya esikhulu kunye nobuchule. Nangona kunjalo, i-avalanche iwa ngokukhawuleza okukhulu.

Ukuba ubunzima bekhephu abuzinzanga kunye neefom kwithambeka, isantya sayo siya kunyuka njengoko umphakamo uyehla njengoko usihla. Ingxolo eyivelisayo inkulu kwaye iyavakala kwezinye iintaba. Xa ithe ekugqibeleni yazinza emazantsi ethambeka elinciphayo, ivelisa isixa esikhulu samafu esuntswana lomkhenkce ngenxa yempembelelo. La maqhekeza omkhenkce ekugqibeleni asasazeka emoyeni anyibilike.

Ukwahlulwa kwekhephu

Ukwanda kwekhephu

Iindonga zequbhu zenzeka xa umaleko owahlukileyo wekhephu ungalinganiyo, nto leyo yenza ukuba kube lula ukuhambisa okanye ukutyibilika ngaphezulu komnye. Ngokubanzi, zihlala zisenzeka ngenxa yezinto ezithile ezibangela, apho sinokuqaqambisa: umhlaba, umoya, imvula, utshintsho lobushushu, iimeko zekhephu, ukumila kunye noburhabaxa bendawo leyo, utyani olukhoyo kunye nabantu.

Kwangokunjalo, ubukrakra besiganeko bunxulumene ngokusondeleyo kwithambeka, umphezulu wokwahlula kunye nenqanaba lokwehla kwethambeka. Ngokumalunga nokuhlelwa kwabo, bahlula-hlulwe ngokweendidi ezintathu.

  • Kutshanje ngekhephu: zezo zenzeka emva kweziqendu zekhephu elinamandla kwaye eliqhubekayo. Bavame ukuqokelela iisentimitha ezimbalwa zekhephu elitsha kwaye kubangela ukuba amasuntswana eekristal zekhephu abanalo ixesha elaneleyo lokukwazi ukudibana ngokuqinileyo kunye nesibetho. Ke ngoko, baqala ukukhawuleza kuba ikhava yekhephu ingazinzanga.
  • Plate ukudilika- Yenzeka ngenxa yokutyibilika komaleko oxineneyo noxineneyo. Oku kutyibilika kwenzeka kolunye uluhlu lwekhephu oludala kakhulu olwenza ngokungathi liyirampu kuba ayinabumbano phakathi kobuso bobabini. Ihlala ivela ngenxa yokugcwala kakhulu kwaye ngakumbi kumathambeka aqala kwiidigri ezingama-25-45.
  • Ukoyiswa kweAvalanche: yinto eqhelekileyo eyenzeka rhoqo ngonyaka. Ziqheleke ngakumbi entwasahlobo kwaye kukushenxiswa kobuninzi bekhephu elimanzi elingenamanyano. Banokuhluka ukusuka kukuhamba okuncinci okukhoyo okungabalulekanga kangako kwii-avalanche ezinkulu. Ziveliswa ngenxa yokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu ngokuqhubekayo ngexesha lentwasahlobo kwaye xa idlula i-0 degrees umaleko wokuqala uqala ukunyibilika. Izolo ukunyibilika kubangela ukukhukhumala kwamanqanaba asezantsi kwaye kuqala ukonyusa ukungazinzi kwendawo. Ke ngoko, baphela bephalaza ngomthwalo omncinci. Ukuba amanzi anyibilikayo afikelela kumanqanaba asezantsi, anokuvelisa umboniso wesilayidi obangela ukuhla kwezantsi. Eli banga lingezantsi alikho enye into ngaphandle kwengubo yonke yekhephu elihamba lisiya ezantsi.

Ukuqulunqwa kwekhephu

umngcipheko wekhephu

Ubunzima be-avalanche bamalunga nesigidi esinye seetoni. Khawufane ucinge xa ​​uskiya ngokuzolileyo, usonwabela ubuhle nokuhla ngesantya esiphezulu kweadrenaline, kwaye uzifumanisa uleqwa sisigidi setoni yekhephu. Isiphumo siyoyikeka. Uninzi lwabashushumbisi abachaphazeleka leli dabi bangcwatywa kulo.

Ukongeza, awuyi kuphela kukusweleka ngenxa yokuba ungcwatyiwe, kodwa kufuneka uqaphele ukuba izigidi zeetoni zinomkhenkce kwaye unesifo sehypothermia. Kodwa yintoni ebangela ukudilika? Ukuze kwenzeke isiganeko esibi kangaka, kufuneka ikhephu elininzi. Ikhephu kumathambeka sesona sizathu sokudilika komhlaba.

Bahlala bakha kumathambeka anama-angles anyukayo phakathi kwe-25 ukuya kwi-60 degrees. Kule meko, xa kugcinwe ikhephu, inokufakwa ngumxhuzulane. Kodwa ukwakheka kwe-avalanche kufuna enye into, oko kukuthi, kukho i-blizzard enokugcina malunga ne-30 cm yekhephu kwindawo ephezulu ngexesha elifutshane. Ikhephu kufuneka ligcinwe ubuncinci iiyure ezingama-24 ukuvumela ukuba lihlale kunye nobunzima obonyukayo ngokuxinana.

Ubophelelo phakathi kwamanqanaba ekhephu kufuneka lube buthathaka ukuze bangazinzi. Ngokwesiqhelo, xa ikhephu lihlala kakhulu, kukho umaleko ongazinzanga ngakumbi. Utshintsho ngequbuliso lwemozulu kwindawo leyo ngunobangela we-avalanche. Isenokuba ngumthi owehlisiweyo, inyikima encinci, okanye ingxolo egqithisileyo, enje ngemakethi okanye izithethi.

Yintoni oyenzayo

Masibone eminye yemithetho yokufunda ukuba ujongana njani nekhephu:

  • Xa ubunzima buqala ukukhulula, kuyacetyiswa ukuba ususe iipali zokuskiya kuba zinokudala umonakalo omkhulu.
  • Zama ukuphuma kwindlela ye-avalanche kamva
  • Ukuba uwe kwaye watsalwa, zama ukuhlala umphezulu ngazo zonke iindleko uhambisa iingalo zakho ngokungathi ubudada.
  • Xa i-avalanche iyehla, kuya kufuneka uvale umlomo kunye nempumlo ngezandla zakho ukuze wenze umngxunya ovumela ukuba uphefumle.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nekhephu lekhephu kunye neempawu zalo.


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