Seine umlambo

iimpawu zomlambo seine

El Seine umlambo, okanye i-Seine ngesiFrentshi, ngowona mlambo ubalulekileyo eFransi, zombini kwiindlela zayo, ubutyebi bezorhwebo kunye nabakhenkethi, njengesimboli esingenakulinganiswa sodumo oluhamba kunye nobomi obuninzi baseParis. Imalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-774,76 ubude kwaye igalela kwindawo yaseParis, ngakumbi iTroyes, iParis, iRouen kunye neLe Havre. Iphakama kwi-Source-Seine, iimitha ezingama-446 ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle, kwithafa laseLangres eCôte-d'Or. Umkhombandlela jikelele wendlela yayo isuka kumzantsi-mpuma ukuya kumntla-ntshona. I-Seine ingena kwi-English Channel phakathi kweLe Havre kunye neHonfleur. Isiseko sayo se-hydrological sithatha i-79.000 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha kwaye ithatha phantse i-30% yabemi belizwe.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga noMlambo iSeine kunye neempawu zayo.

Ukuzalwa kunye nendawo

ukuzalwa kwe-seine

ISeine ngumsinga waseYurophu kwithambeka leAtlantiki, elikumantla eFransi. Iqala malunga neemitha ezingama-470 ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle, ebekwe kwithafa laseLangres, kufutshane neDijon, eCôte d’Or, ize ihambe inqumla kumntla-ntshona inqumla izixeko iTroyes, iFontainebleau, iParis neRouen (iRouen) ide ifike emlonyeni wayo kumhlaba obanzi. ichweba eliphakathi kweHavre neHonfleur, kumntla-ntshona, iSeine Bay, English Channel.

UMlambo iSeine ngowona mlambo wesibini ubude kweli lizwe, emva kweRhône (nangona inxalenye yayo inqumla kumhlaba waseSwitzerland), ubude bayo buziikhilomitha ezingama-776. Isitya sayo sinendawo yeekhilomitha ezingama-78.650 zeekhilomitha kwaye ubukhulu becala ingaphakathi kweBassin parissien okanye iParisian Basin, enentlenga eyintlenga ekwimo yesitya esivuleleke kwiEnglish Channel ngokwembono yokwakheka komhlaba.

Isitya sibandakanya iimo zejoloji ezidibana embindini ecaleni kwamathambeka, kunye nokwakheka okubalulekileyo kwe-aquifer phakathi kwazo. Ubume bendawo yayo ayidluli kwi-300 m, ngaphandle konxweme olusemzantsi-mpuma eMorvan Heights, apho ifikelela kubude obungama-900 m.

Njengoko besitshilo ngaphambili, umlambo iSeine uphakama malunga neemitha ezingama-470 ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle. I-Seine inokuhamba ngenqanawa ukusuka e-Bar-sur-Seine, ngaphezu kweekhilomitha ze-563 ukusuka emlonyeni wayo, kwiinqanawa ezincinci kunye nezinye iinqanawa ezinomthwalo omkhulu wemithwalo, ukuya eRouen, malunga neekhilomitha ze-121 ukusuka emlonyeni wayo.

Ulawulo lwamanzi omlambo iSeine

owona mlambo ubalulekileyo eParis

I-Paris Basin inemozulu yolwandle, kunye nemimoya ekhoyo yasentshona izisa ukuhamba okuthe rhoqo kokufuma. Imimandla engaselunxwemeni ifumana phakathi kwe-800mm ne-1100mm yemvula. Ngenxa yokunqongophala kwe-Topography, umphakamo wehla ukuya kwi-550mm kumbindi wengingqi, i-Bosch yeyona iphantsi, impuma-mpuma iphakama, kwaye i-Mofan iphezulu kwi-1300mm.

ISeine kunye neendawo zayo ezintathu eziphambili, i-Aubert, iMarne kunye ne-Oise, zijikeleza kwiindawo ezineempawu ezifanayo (iimeko zolwandle, i-topography ephantsi kunye ne-geology efanayo). Babelana ngolawulo olufanayo lwe-hydrological, kunye nokuhamba okuphezulu kakhulu ngoJanuwari kunye neyona nto iphantsi ngo-Agasti.

Isiseko saseParis sibandakanya iindawo ezimanzi ezimanzi ezimanzi ezilithoba ezidityaniswe phakathi kweeleya ezahlukeneyo zejoloji. Uthungelwano lwamanzi ludityaniswe ngokuthe ngqo kwi-akhwifa engekho nzulu kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo. Kuxhomekeke kubude bamanzi, wondla iSeine okanye utyiswa yiyo. Okokugqibela, ulwakhiwo lwe-alluvial olungaphantsi kweemitha ezili-10 ubukhulu kwintlambo zenza i-aquifer yeshumi enemveliso kakhulu.

Nangona iimvula zisasazwa kakuhle unyaka wonke, iSeine nemimandla yayo inokuba namaxesha amabi amaza amancinane ekupheleni kwehlobo okanye, ngokuchaseneyo, izikhukula ezinamandla ebusika. Kukho iintlobo ezimbini zezikhukhula: izikhukhula ezikhawulezayo kwindawo ephezulu yesitya emva kweemvula ezinkulu kunye nezikhukhula ezicothayo kwiintlambo ezisezantsi emva kweemvula ezinde.

Isitya somlambo iSeine

Seine umlambo

Basin, kuquka nenxalenye yeBelgium, yi-78 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha (30 yeemayile zesikwere), apho i-470% ihlathi kwaye i-2% ingumhlaba olimekayo. Ngaphandle kweParis, kukho ezinye izixeko ezithathu ezikwindawo yaseSeine ezinabemi abangaphezu kwe-78. ZiyiLe Havre emlonyeni womlambo, iRouen kwintlambo yaseSeine kunye neReims emantla akude, kunye nezinga lokukhula kwedolophu nge-100.000%. Ukuxinana kwabemi ngabantu abangama-0,2 ngekhilomitha yesikwere.

Isixokelelwano sogutyulo lwaseParis ngamaxesha athile sifumana ukusilela okwaziwa njengokuphuphuma komjelo wamanzi amdaka, ngesiqhelo ngexesha leemvula ezinkulu. Kwezi meko, ilindle elikrwada lagalelwa kwiSeine. Ukunqongophala kweoksijini okusisiphumo kubangelwa ikakhulu ziibhaktheriya ezingezizo ezendalo ezinkulu kunemicron enye.

I-Seine inomlinganiselo ophezulu weentsimbi ezinzima. I-pH yePont Neuf Seine ilinganiswe kwi-8,46. Nangona kunjalo, umgangatho wamanzi uphuculwe ngokuphawulekayo xa uthelekiswa noko ababhali-mbali abahlukahlukeneyo bakubiza ngokuthi "imisele evulekileyo" ngamaxesha ahlukeneyo kwixesha elidlulileyo.

Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana

Uninzi lweSeine ludlula kwiindawo ezinemizi-mveliso okanye eziphuhliswe kakhulu, ngoko izityalo zayo kunye nezilwanyana ziyancipha. Noko ke, amanzi ahlala eyindawo yokuhlala iintlanzi ezinjengeflounder (iLota lota), i<em>pike (Esox lucius), minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), i<em>perch (Perca fluviatilis), iflounder yaseYurophu (iPlatichthys flesus), i<em>sturgeon eqhelekileyo (iAcipenser sturio), iTinca i-tinca, i-white snapper (i-Blicca bjoerkna), i-loach (i-Cobitis taenia), i-otter (i-Barbatula barbatula), i-eel (i-Anguilla anguilla), i-lampe yomlambo (i-Lampetra planeri), i-lamprey yomlambo (i-Lampetra fluviatilis) kunye nesibane solwandle (Petromyzon marinus), ukutyelela amanzi anebrackish okanye amatsha asuka elwandle. I-Acipenser sturio inqabile okanye isenokuba yanyamalala emilanjeni, kwaye isalmon yeAtlantiki (i-Salmo salar), eyanyamalala emanzini ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, ibonakala ngathi iyabuya.

Ubume bendawo yeSeine Valley ayitshintshanga kangako, kuqikelelwa ukuba i-2% igutyungelwe ngamahlathi kwaye i-78% iyalinywa. Ekubeni iBurgundy ingummandla ovelisa iwayini, kufutshane nomthombo wayo, umhlaba wonganyelwe yimidiliya. Ngaphaya kwendlela yokungena esixekweni, elunxwemeni likhaya lezityalo ezithile zasemanzini, ezigqalwa ziingcongolo zazo.

Ukubaluleka kweSeine, ukongeza kuqoqosho, inkcubeko kunye nembali. Ngumlambo onokuhamba ngokulula kuwo ngenxa yamanzi azolileyo, umphakamo ophantsi ngokubhekiselele kumphakamo wolwandle kunye nokwakhiwa kwamadama kunye namadama. E-Paris, yenza umzila wamanzi kwaye uthungelwano lwe-drainage yesixeko luthwala uninzi lwetrafikhi yomlambo waseFransi. I-Le Havre yichweba eliphambili elisenyakatho yelizwe, emlonyeni womlambo, ngoko iParis ixhunywe ngokuthe ngqo kwi-port. I-Seine idlula kwiibhulorho zaseParis ezingama-37 kunye neebhulorho ezininzi ngaphandle kwesixeko.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga noMlambo waseSeine kunye neempawu zayo.


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