Ikhalenda yeZaragoza

Ikhalenda yeZaragoza

Namhlanje siza kuyazi ikhalenda ekhethekileyo enobuhle nomtsalane kuba ingagxili kwisayensi kodwa inesibikezelo sonyaka wonke ngaphandle kobungqongqo besayensi. Imalunga nayo Ikhalenda yeZaragozano. Olu lupapasho lonyaka lwaseSpain olubandakanya uqikelelo lwemozulu kunye neenkwenkwezi unyaka wonke wekhalenda kwaye ngaphandle kwalo naluphi na uhlobo lobungqongqo bezenzululwazi.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke imbali kunye neempawu zekhalenda yeZaragozano.

Imvelaphi yekhalenda yeZaragozano

Ikhalenda yeZaragoza 2018

Uhlelo lokuqala lwekhalenda yeZaragoza lwenziwa okokuqala ngo-1840. Yayilungiselelwe ngumvumisi ngeenkwenkwezi waseSpain uMariano Castillo y Ocsiero. Ngaphandle kokuphazanyiswa, ngaphandle nje kweminyaka embalwa xa kwenzeka iMfazwe yamakhaya yaseSpain, icacisiwe kwaye yahlelwa. Phantse kuzo zonke iintlelo imbonakalo efanayo yeenkwenkwezi ibonakala ibhekisa kuMdali wayo. Isazi ngeenkwenkwezi yindoda enembonakalo entle kakhulu. Iinwele zakhe zidlakadlaka ngokupheleleyo kwaye unegama elithembekileyo.

Okwangoku, azisaprintwa ngokwasemzimbeni, kodwa zinokuthengwa kwi-Intanethi. Nangona kunjalo, isagcina uyilo olunye kuzo zombini ikhava kunye nemixholo. Igama lekhalenda uZaragozan nokuba umbhali uvela phi eZaragoza. Yenziwe ngembeko kwisazi ngeenkwenkwezi saseSpain uVictororiano Zaragozano noGracia Zapater. Esi sazi ngeenkwenkwezi sazalelwa ePuebla de Albortón ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX kwaye sasithandwa kakhulu ngexesha lakhe. Kwaye wayenolwazi oluninzi malunga ne-astronomy kwaye wenza ii-almanacs ezikhuphisanayo zesinye isazinzulu saseSpain esasimile kwizifundo zakhe ngeenkwenkwezi, imathematics kunye nembali yendalo. Olu khuphiswano yayinguJerónimo Cortés.

Imbali yekhalenda yeZaragozano

Iialmanacs

Imbali yekhalenda yeZaragozano iqala emva kohlelo lwayo lokuqala. Ukusasazeka kwayo kufikelele kuzo zonke iikona zaseSpain kwezi fomathi zazinikezelwe ngelo xesha. Le khalenda yayiqulathe Ishiti eligoqwe kwisiqingatha ebelisesinye sezona zithengiswa kakhulu enye imodeli yayiyimpapasho epokothweni elingana nephetshana elisongiweyo.

Namhlanje siqhele ukuba nenani elikhulu lolwazi malunga noqikelelo lwemozulu kungekuphela kwelizwe lethu, kodwa kwihlabathi liphela. Ungasazi isimo sezulu ngenxa yemizekelo eyahlukeneyo esiyifundayo exhaswa yimizobo, iifoto zesathelayithi, iifomula zemathematics kunye nolwazi oluninzi. Ndiyabulela kule teknoloji, imeteorology yeentsuku ezininzi inokuqikelelwa ngokuchanekileyo. Nangona kunjalo, imfuneko yokwazi imozulu ayonto intsha. Esi sidingo sasikhona kwasekuqaleni. Esi sesinye sezizathu zokuba bekusoloko kuzanywa ukwazi ukuba yintoni eza kwenzeka kwangaphambili.

Ngaphambili, imo yezulu ibisaziwa ngokujonga ngqo imiqondiso enokuthi ibonwe kwindawo ngokwayo kunye nokuguquguquka kwemozulu njengamafu, umoya kunye neqondo lobushushu elalikho ngelo xesha. Kwaye kwafuneka ubala kumava abantu abadala abathile ababenawo okanye iingqikelelo ezenza ukuba bafudumale kwaye ezimbini zinjengekhalenda yeZaragozano. Njengakwimeko yanamhlanje, yayingabo babezinikele kwezolimo benza iinzame ezikhethekileyo zokubhala phantsi kwaye bazi ukuba unyaka olandelayo uzakuba njani ukuze bakwazi ukukhetha amaxesha okuhlwayela kunye nokuvuna ukwandisa isivuno. Namhlanje abantu abaninzi bathatha oku kuqatshelweyo nangona bekwenza ngendlela enomdla ngakumbi kunenjongo yesayensi.

Le khalenda sele isetyenzisiwe ukusukela oko yaqalwa njengencwadi esecaleni kwebhedi kumafama kuba izityalo zinokuxhomekeka kwiimeko zemozulu ezahlukileyo. Imbalela, izaqhwithi kunye nezigaba zenyanga zichaphazela izityalo kwaye ngenxa yekhalenda yeZaragozano kunokwenzeka ukuba ube nolwazi ngakumbi ngayo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

ukuqikelela

Ixabiso lokuqala le khalenda ebelinalo ngo-1840 kufuneka ukuba lalikwisizathu kuba yayiyimali eyayifumaneka ngelo xesha. Kuze kube yiminyaka engama-28 kamva apho ipeseta yaziswa eSpain njengethenda esemthethweni. Ixabiso ekuqaleni lalimalunga neesenti ezili-15 ngo-1920 (ezaziza kulingana nee-euro namhlanje). Njengoko iminyaka ihamba, ixabiso layo lenyuke laya kufikelela kwi-20 duros okanye i-100 pesetas okanye i-0,60 cents. Okwangoku ixabiso li-1.8 euro. Njengoko ubona, imeko yokunyuka kwamaxabiso kwimveliso enye ihambela phambili iminyaka kunye neminyaka.

Ngo-1900, ikhalenda yeZaragozano yathengiswa ngokuvakalayo kwiindawo eziphambili zeedolophu needolophu. Uninzi lwabathengi belusizana kwaye malunga ne-1.270.000 iikopi zathengiswa. Namhlanje kuphela iikopi ezingama-300.000 XNUMX ezithengiswayo. Njengoko kulindelwe, kunye nenkqubela phambili yesayensi, olu hlobo lweekhalenda lunempembelelo engakumbi yokuziqhelanisa nolondolozo njengotyekelo lomnqweno wokufuna ukwazi kunesimo sobungqongqo besayensi.

Ukuba sihlalutya amanye amaphepha kwimbali, le khalenda ingasibonisa izinto ezininzi zexesha ngalinye. Umzekelo, kuqweqwe lonyaka we-1883 isilumkiso sinokulinganiswa ukuze singakhohliswa zezinye iikhalenda ezazisilinganisa. Omnye umzekelo liqweqwe nangaphakathi kwikhalenda yeZaragozano ukusukela ngonyaka ka-1936. Kolu shicilelo kwakukho ubuncwane bezentengiso obabufihliwe obabubonisa kwaye babonisa iingxaki ezahlukeneyo ezazinoluntu ngelo xesha. Masingakulibali ukuba ngelo xesha kufutshane neMfazwe yamakhaya yaseSpain amabinzana anje ngeViva Franco! anokubonwa kumaqweqwe. kunye neArriba Spain!

Embindini wemfazwe kwakungacetyiswa kwaphela ukuba uzihlukanise nolawulo loyiso kwaye zazibhalwe kumaqweqwe ezi zibhengezo, ngelo xesha zazichanekile kwezopolitiko kwaye ukwanda kwintengiso kwakuthandwa ngabom. Ukutyhubela iminyaka, iintengiso kwikhalenda yeZaragoza zincitshiswa ngokuthe chu de zingabikho. Kube kufunwa ukunika ukubaluleka ngakumbi kunye nokwazisa kule khalenda kubandakanya nexabiso layo lokuthengisa eluntwini. Isimbozo sangoku sinokubonwa silingana neminyaka eyadlulayo kwaye siza kuqhubeka nokuba singumqondiso womtsalane waso.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nekhalenda yeZaragozano kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.