IGreenwich Meridian

I-geenwich meridian

Ukuze yahlule iplanethi yethu kwiindawo zejografi kwaye sikwazi ukuchonga indawo yommandla ngamnye kakuhle, i IGreenwich Meridian. Umgca wentelekelelo odibanisa iNtla yeNyakatho kunye neSouth Pole yoMhlaba. Ngumgca onoxanduva lokwahlula-hlula umhlaba ube zii-hemispheres ezimbini, empuma nasentshona. Le yindlela imeridian yeGreenwich esebenza njengesalathiso kwihlabathi liphela ukuze sikwazi ukuseta ixesha kuwo onke amazwe.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neGreenwich meridian, iimpawu zayo kunye nokuba yenzelwe ntoni.

Yintoni iMeridian yeGreenwich kwaye yenzelwe ntoni?

ixesha lendawo

Eyona ndlela yokufumana ulwazi ngeGreenwich Meridian kukuya eLondon, eyazalelwa eRoyal Observatory eGreenwich, emazantsi edolophu yaseBritane. Indawo ayaziwa kangako, kodwa yindawo efanelekileyo yeholide kuhambo oluya eLondon ngeentsuku ezintathu. IRoyal Greenwich Observatory yindawo ephawulekayo yokuqonda ukuba kutheni kwaye kutheni iGreenwich Meridian ibonakala.

I-Royal Greenwich Observatory ibambe umboniso ngokubaluleka kwexesha, indlela eyakhiwe ngayo i-meridian, kunye nezivumelwano ezalandelwa ngamazwe kwihlabathi liphela ukumisela ithayimthebhile ngawo. Kwakhona, ukusuka kwi-promontory apho ukubonwa khona kungabonwa ngokungaqhelekanga kweLondon (ukuba nje kukho usuku olunelanga).

IGreenwich Meridian isetyenziselwa ukuphawula ixesha eliqhelekileyo. Le yindibano, kwaye kwavunyelwana eGreenwich, kuba kwiNkomfa yeHlabathi ye-1884, kwagqitywa ukuba yayiyimvelaphi ye-zero meridian. Ngelo xesha, uBukhosi base-Bhritane babukwelona xesha likhulu lokwanda, kwaye kwakufuneka ukuba kwenziwe njalo. Ukuba ubukhosi ngelo xesha babungenye, namhlanje singathi indawo eyahlukileyo, enje nge-zero meridian. Ukuqala kwi-Meridian yeGreenwich, ummandla wexesha osebenzayo kwilizwe ngalinye kunye nommandla uqulunqwe.

Imeko yamazwe aseYurophu iyamangalisa kuba kukho iindawo ezininzi ezikwilizwekazi laseYurophu, kodwa ngokwe-Directive 2000/84, amazwe enza i-European Union Ndithathe isigqibo sokugcina iiyure ezifanayo kuwo onke amaxesha ukukhuthaza imisebenzi yezopolitiko kunye neyorhwebo. Eli siko lisetyenziswe kumazwe amaninzi ukusukela ngeMfazwe yeHlabathi yokuQala, xa yayisetyenziswa njengendlela yokonga ipetroli. Kodwa iMeridian yeGreenwich ihlala isetyenziswa njengesalathiso.

Ukutshintsha kwexesha ebusika kwenzeka ngeCawa yokugqibela ngo-Okthobha kwaye kubandakanya ukuhambisa iwotshi phambili iyure enye. Kwelinye icala, utshintsho lwexesha ehlotyeni lwenzeka ngeCawa yokugqibela ngo-Matshi, oko kuthetha ukuhambisa iwotshi phambili iyure enye.

Umlando omncinci

i-greenwich meridian kwimephu yokudibanisa

I-Royal Observatory eGreenwich yakhiwa nguKing Charles II ngo-1675, kwaye wonyula uJohn Franstead njengeRoyal Astronomer yakhe yokuqala. Injongo icacile: ukuphucula ukukhangela elwandle kunye nokuzama ukufumana indlela yokubala umgama. Kude kube yinkulungwane ye-XNUMX, iGreat Britain yayiligunya lomkhosi waselwandle, ke ukufumana ubuchwephesha bokuchaneka obuchanekileyo nobuthembekileyo yayingumba wesizwe kwilizwe.

Kude kube lelo xesha, ukuhamba ngenqanawa kwakusenziwa ngokuchaneka okanye kancinci, kodwa bekuhlala kukho iimpazamo ezincinci (okanye ezinkulu), ezinokubiza kakhulu ngokwembono ebalulekileyo neyoqoqosho. Nangona kunjalo, ngo-1774, emva kokubhengezwa kokhuphiswano, uJohn Harrison, umchweli owathi ekugqibeleni wenza iwotshi, wacebisa inkqubo yokulinganisa ngokuchanekileyo ubude (umgama phakathi kweemeridiya ezimbini) kwimephu.

Ngokomlinganiso wexesha, iRoyal Greenwich Observatory iqulethe eyona ndawo iphambili emhlabeni, kwaye ezinye iimelidiya zithathwa kule meridiya kwaye zisetyenziswa njengesalathiso sokumisela ixesha lexesha. Ngaphambi kokudalwa kweGreenwich Meridian, kwakungekho ndibano malunga nomlinganiso wexesha okanye ukuqala nokuphela kosuku. Ngaphandle kwewotshi, imilinganiselo yeyure Zenziwa nge-intuitively ngokuxhomekeke ekukhanyeni kwelanga. Nangona kunjalo, ukuthunyelwa koololiwe kunye nophuhliso lonxibelelwano ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX kunyanzelise ukusekwa kwenkqubo yokulinganisa ixesha kwindalo yonke eqinisekisa ukubamba ixesha nokuchaneka.

Apho ukhoyo eSpain

ukwahlulwa kweeyure zejografi

Indawo yokuzalwa yeGreenwich Meridian yiLondon. Njengoko besitshilo ngaphambilana, le meridi idibanisa izibonda zasemantla nezasezantsi, oko ke kubandakanya amazwe aliqela kunye neendawo ezahlukeneyo. Umzekelo, iMeridian yeGreenwich idlula kwisixeko saseSpain iCastellón de la Plana. Olunye uphawu lokuwela kweMeridian lufumaneka kwiikhilomitha ezingama-82.500 zendlela ye-AP-2 eHuesca.

Kodwa, enyanisweni, iMeridian ibaleka phantse kuyo yonke impuma yeSpain, ukusuka ekungeneni kwayo kwiiPyrenees ukuya ekuphumeni kwayo ngokucoca i-El Serrallo eCastellón de la Plana.

Ixabiso lembali yeMeridiya yaseGreenwich

IGreenwich inezinto ezithile ezinomdla onokuzibona. IRoyal Observatory ibekwe epakini enegama elifanayo, ekwalikhaya kwezinye iindawo zenkcubeko ezingaziwa ziindwendwe zaseLondon. Njengoko besitshilo ngaphambilana, iGreat Britain yayiligunya laselwandle kude kube ngekhulu le-XNUMX. IMyuziyam kaZwelonke yoLwandle ibekwe kule nxalenye yesixeko kwaye Ibalisa ibali labucala kunye noloyiso lweenqanawa zaseBritane. Ewe kunjalo, eli libali elisemthethweni, kuba bambalwa abantu abakhankanyayo ukuba usapho lwasebukhosini lwaseBritane luhlawule abaphangi baseBritane ukuba basebenzisane ekuhlukumezeni nasekuphangeni iinqanawa ezivela kwamanye amazwe anjengeSpain.

Imyuziyam ineempendulo zeenqanawa, amaxwebhu, njl.njl, ezinomtsalane kubathandi bolwandle kunye nabo banqwenela ukufunda ngakumbi ngembali yesizwe sase-Bhritane.

Njengomrhumo kwiSpeyin, imyuziyam ibonisa isinxibo seqhawe lase-Bhritane u-Admiral Horatio Nelson. Wafa kwi-Battle of Trafalgar ngo-1805. Nangona waliphumelelayo idabi, abaseBritane bathatha inxaxheba kweli dabi. Ukuphikisana namaqela asuka eFrance naseSpain. Imfazwe yenkululeko yaseSpain ngokuchasene noNapoleon.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neGreenwich meridian kunye neempawu zayo.


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