Amachibi aseSpain

Amachibi aseSpain

Imbalela yenye yeziganeko ezihlasele iSpain ixesha elide. Imozulu yethu yenza ukuba sibe nemvula ephantsi ekupheleni konyaka kwaye sigxile kwixesha lasebusika. Ngotshintsho lwemozulu kunye nokwanda kwamaqondo obushushu aphakathi kwehlabathi, siyaqaphela ukuba imijikelezo yembalela iye yaqina kwaye yanda. Ke ngoko, amadama eSpain badlala indima ebalulekileyo kubungakanani bamanzi afumanekayo okusetyenziswa ngabantu kunye neminye imisebenzi yezoqoqosho.

Siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuba likuxelele yonke into oyifunayo malunga namachibi aseSpain kunye neempawu zawo eziphambili.

Ukwakhiwa kwamadama amatsha eSpain

Ukwakhiwa kwamadama eSpain yinto eyenzeka kumaxesha amandulo. Njengomntu ozinzileyo kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo, kwabonakala isidingo sokugcina amanzi. Kuba ngaphambili itekhnoloji ibingahambanga phambili njenganamhlanje, I-morphology yommandla kuye kwafuneka ukuba isetyenziswe nangakumbi. Kulapha apho ijiology idlala indima ebalulekileyo ekubunjweni kwamadama. Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lomhlaba kunye nelitye eliphambili, amadama obukhulu obahlukeneyo anokwakhiwa. Ubume bendawo leyo bekufuneka buthathelwe ingqalelo. Iikhosi zamanzi kunye nokuhamba okwenziwe ngumntu ngamnye njengokutya ukuzalisa amadama kunye nokugcina amanzi akhoyo.

Kwakungekho kude kube ngo-1970 apho kwenziwa uluhlu lokuqala lwamadama aseSpain. Yenziwe yiKomiti yeSizwe yaseSpain yamaDama amaKhulu (i-SPANCOLD) kwaye yaboniswa kwi-X International Congress yamadama amakhulu, ehlelwe yiKhomishini yeHlabathi yamaDama amaKhulu (ICOLD) eMontreal. Ulwazi oluqulethwe kwii-inventri lwenza ukuba kuhlaziywe ukuvela kwenani lamadama eSpain kule nkulungwane yama-XNUMX. Kuyanceda nokwazi isixa samanzi esinakho ukuwagcina ukuze siwasebenzise kamva.

Ulwazi oluninzi luqokelelwe lubonisa ukuba ngethuba Kule minyaka ingama-25 idlulileyo, iSpain iye yakha ngaphezulu kwamadama angama-200 kwirhafu yokuxhaphaza. Ngexesha lokuvela kwale nkulungwane iphelileyo kuye kwenzeka ukuhlalutya imeko ecace gca kwindaleko yolwakhiwo lwamadama. Isiqingatha sokuqala senkulungwane yama-4 ndifuna ukubonakaliswa kukugunyaziswa konyaka kwamadama ama-XNUMX. Kulapho ke kwaqala khona ulwakhiwo kulwakhiwo lwezixhobo ezinokugcina amanzi kunye nokutshintsha umjikelo wamanzi.

Kwelinye icala, sinesiqingatha sesibini senkulungwane yama-XNUMX apho kukho uphuhliso olubonakalayo kwilizwe lethu. Kwaye esi sisiqingatha sesibini yayiyinguqulelo epheleleyo yamachibi aseSpain. Ngokomyalelo wamadama angama-20 ngonyaka afakwa ekusebenzeni. Njengokuba singena kwinkulungwane yama-XNUMX, imeko ekhulayo nayo yaqala ukonyusa inani lamadama.

Uluhlu lweedama zaseSpain

NguMphathiswa Wezendalo kunye neMicimbi Yasezilalini okwangoku ophetheyo ukugcina uluhlu lweedama zaseSpain zihlaziyiwe. Kule nkonzo singafumana i-portal yewebhu apho sinazo zonke iimpawu eziphambili kunye nendawo yamachibi aphambili eSpain. Enkosi kolu lwazi sinokufumana idatha kuyo ukuhanjiswa kwamadama ngokusekwe kubuchwephesha bawo, ukuphakama kwawo, ukuvela kwenani lamadama eSpain, amandla elowo nalowo, Njl

Kufuneka iqatshelwe ukuba idatha ekhoyo ngokubhekisele kwinani lamadama eSpain iye yanda ngokukodwa kumashumi eminyaka akutshanje. Abantu abaninzi bayazibuza ukuba kutheni kungasakhiwa imigxobhozo ukuba imbalela ifuna ulwakhiwo lwezixhobo ezitsha zokugcina amanzi.

Namhlanje akukho nto ithethwayo ngamadama okanye imigxobhozo, kodwa ubukhulu becala imisebenzi yolawulo yenziwa. Speyin Kuthathelwe ingqalelo njengegunya lehlabathi kumadama anenani le-1.200. Oku kubeka iSpain njengenkokeli eYurophu. Nangona kunjalo, iSpain okwangoku ijongene nexesha apho kungakhange kwenziwe iziseko zolu hlobo. Kwaye ukuba imigaqo yamanzi ebikhutshiwe eBrussels kwaye ibisebenza ukususela ekuqaleni kwale nkulungwane, kubhejwa kwityuwa yamanzi. Kukwakho noxinzelelo kwezendalo, ubunzima bezoqoqosho kunye nokucinywa kwesicwangciso samanzi esizwe. Yonke le meko ibangele ukuba imisebenzi yoluntu ibhekiswe kwezinye iiprojekthi ezingezizo ezokwakhiwa kwamadama amatsha eSpain.

Ikwabeka phambili imisebenzi leyo Qinisekisa ukuba amajelo awavelisi izikhukula ezininzi. Kuba imvula eSpain yenzeka ngamandla kwiindawo ezininzi kuyingozi kuCarlos ukuqhuba imilambo ngaphandle konyango. Ke ngoko, umba ophambili namhlanje kukukhuphela ngaphandle imisebenzi echaphazela imilambo kunye namathafa ukuze bakwazi ukugcina amanzi ngokungeyonyani. Le yindlela umsebenzi onzima ngakumbi ophunyezwa ngayo kulawulo kunokufaka ikhonteyina entsha kulawulo lwamanzi kuzwelonke.

Ingxaki yokumiswa kwamadama eSpain

Amachibi aziwa ngokuququzelela ulawulo lwemithombo yamanzi. Bavumela ukufumana amandla ombane ophehlwa ngamanzi kunye nokwandisa indawo zokunkcenkceshela echibini, bencedisa ukulawula izikhukula. Nangona kunjalo, kukho umngcipheko wokumisa amadama. Olu lungiselelo aluyonto ngaphandle kokuqokelelwa kwentlenga ngendlela yendalo kwaye inyanzeliswa zizantyalantyala zemvula.

Fumana inqanaba lokumisa amachibi kubalulekile ukwazi nokukwazi ukubala ngokuchanekileyo oovimba bokubonisa ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi obukhoyo kwilizwe liphela. Isantya kunye nenqanaba le nkqubo eyenzeka ngalo kwizitya zamachibi lixhomekeke kwimozulu yommandla ngamnye. Kuxhomekeke kubume bejoloji, inkangeleko yomhlaba, ukusetyenziswa kwezolimo, isixa sogqume lwezityalo kunye ne-lithology yedama uqobo. Zonke ezi zinto zixabisekileyo zezo zichonga isixa sezidalwa ezinokuthi ziwele ukuthuthwa emva kokuba zikhukulisiwe kwaye ziphele ziqokelelwe ngaphakathi kwidama.

Ukuqokelela okulandelayo kwezi zithambiso kunciphisa umthamo wedama lokugcina amanzi. Kwixesha elide, le misebenzi yommiselo wentlenga iyafuneka ukugcina isikhongozeli siluncedo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nemithombo yolwandle yaseSpain.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.