Karenda yeMiddle Ages

karenda yepakati

Karenda yacho ndeimwe yemiedzo yepfungwa yenguva yenzanga. Nekuiongorora, tinogona kuwana ruzivo nezvehumwe hunhu munharaunda. Hukama huripo pakati pezvitendero zvinozivikanwa nezvitendero zvechiKristu, chimiro chemagariro, pfungwa dzehupenyu hwevanhu, nezvimwe. Izvo zvakaratidzirwa mukarenda yeunyanzvi kana yekunyora inoratidza hunhu uhwu, pamwe nemataurirwo emazwi atinoti tsumo. Nhasi tichataura nezvazvo karenda yepakati.

Muchikamu chino tiri kuzokuudza zvese zvaunoda kuti uzive nezvenhoroondo, kukosha uye nemabatiro aungaita iyo medieval karenda.

Nhoroondo yeakarenda yekare

mavambo emwedzi

Pakati peMiddle Ages, makarenda anoshandiswa mumagwaro epakati nepakati munyika dzechiKristu dzeIberian Peninsula aive akasiyana nematarenda atinoshandisa nhasi. Kune rimwe divi, iyo khalendari inonyanyo kuverengerwa neyeSpanish nguva, kunyangwe isu tichaona mamwe mamodheru munguva pfupi. Kune rimwe divi, zuva uye zuva remwedzi rinoteerera karenda yeRoma uye nguva yezuva inotevera nguva yakajairwa inoshandiswa mumamongi.

Iyi nzira yekufambidzana inoita kunge yakashandiswa muIberian Peninsula kubva muzana ramakore rechitatu, uye yaikurudzirwa zvakanyanya muVisigoths uye neHigh Middle Ages. Kazhinji zvinofungidzirwa kuti kwayakatangira kunoreva vaSpanish avo vakagadziriswa nevaRoma. Zvinoenderana nemaonero aya, zvakaitika muna 38 BC, ndiko kuti, muna 716 pakavambwa guta reRoma, kunyangwe tichiziva kuti raive risiri. Izvo zvakaitika chaizvo kusvika kupera kwehondo dzeCantabrian muna 19 BC.

Naizvozvo, kana isu tiine gwaro rakanyorwa zvinoenderana nenguva yevaSpanish, tinofanirwa kubvisa makore makumi matatu nemasere uye tichawana gore rinoenderana nekarenda razvino. Semuenzaniso, kana gwaro rakanyorwa mu era 1045, wozoverenga gore zvichienderana nekarenda yedu: 1045 - 38 = 1007, ndiko kuti, rinoenderana negore 1007 rekarenda yedu.

Aive mukristu

Ndakanga ndiri muHispanic

Mugore ra532, mumongi Dionysius weMeager akaverenga musi uyo Jesu Kristu angadai akaberekwa: Zvita 25, 752 mushure mekuvambwa kweRoma. Nekuda kweichi chiitiko chinoshamisa, zvakave zvakasimbiswa kuti mushure maDecember 31, 752, kubva pakuvambwa kweRoma, yakateverwa naJanuary 1, gore 1 renguva yechiKristu. Kusvika nhasi, iyo chaiyo kuverenga iyo Dionysus akashandisa kusvika mhedziso iyi yekarenda haizivikanwe. Mukupedzisira zvakazopedzisira zvave kukanganisa pakati pe mutsauko wemakore 4-7. Nekudaro, kubvira pakutsanangurwa kwayo, yakashanda kuverenga makore edu.

Iniwo ndinofanira kutakura mupfungwa kuti gore 0 rakanga risingafungidzirwe. Ndipo pavakatanga kushandisa chirevo AD chaireva anno domini kana gore raIshe. Kune nzira dzinoverengeka dzekushandisa kufambidzana kwenguva yechiKristu zvinoenderana nezuva rakasarudzwa kuti gore ritange. Ngatione kuti ndeapi marudzi akasiyana aripo:

  • Gore rekudzingiswa: gore rinotanga muna Ndira 1 uye ndiyo nzira yatinoshandisa izvozvi. Yaishandiswawo kutanga gore revagari vemuRoma. Iyo mhando yegore inoshandiswa nemadzimambo eMerovingian muzana ramakore rechisere. Izvi ndizvo zvakakonzera kuti inogona kupararira muEurope yese kubva muzana ramakore regumi nematatu. Kusvika kuSpain nenzvimbo yayo yepamutemo yakatanga muzana ramakore rechiXNUMX.
  • Gore reKuberekwa: pano gore rinotanga munaKurume 25, apo Mhandara Maria paakabata pamuviri paJesu, ndiko kuti, mwedzi mipfumbamwe Kristu asati azvarwa.

Gore rekuzvarwa rinogona kuverengerwa nenzira mbiri dzakasiyana. Kune rimwe divi, isu tine iyo Pisan kuverenga iyo inoshandiswa muPisa neSiena pakati pemamwe maguta muItaly Tuscany. Kuti ukwanise kuenda kune imwe khalendari, zvinokwana kubvisa gore rimwe kubva pazuva kana riri pakati paKurume 25 naZvita 31 uye rinoramba rakaenzana sekureba kuri mune imwe nguva.

Kune rimwe divi tinaro Florentine achiverenga. Gore rinotanga pano munaKurume 25, asi mushure mekunge Mhandara Maria abata Jesu Kristu. Zvino kana zuva reFlorentine riri pakati paNdira 1 kusvika Kurume 24, gore rinofanira kuwedzerwa kuchinjisa kune kuverenga kwedu. Kana zuva reFlorentine riri pakati paKurume 25 naZvita 31 rinoramba rakafanana. Yakashandiswa muCrown yeAragon kusvika pakutonga kwaPedro IV.

Karenda yeMiddle Ages: mamwe makore

makarenda ekare

Kune mamwe marudzi emakore mukati mekarenda yekare. Ngatione zvavari:

  • Gore rekuzvarwa: gore rinotanga pazuva rekuzvarwa kwaKristu raive Zvita 25. Yakanga ichinyanyo shandiswa mumatunhu eItaly uye mune dzimwe nyika dze 1350th century. Akasimbiswa semukuru muAragon muna 25. Panguva iyi, kana musi wacho waive pakati paDecember 31 naDecember XNUMX, rimwe gore raizofanira kubviswa kubva musi iwoyo. Mamwe mazuva acho anoenderana.
  • Gore rekumuka kuvakafa: ndiyo yekupedzisira mhando yegore irimo mukati medieval kalendari. Ndiyo yakaoma kwazvo kuendesa kukarenda yedu sezvo Easter Svondo isina zuva rakatarwa. Zvinoenderana nekarenda yemwedzi uye kana kupemberera kweVhiki Dzvene kuchinge kwaiswa.

Mwedzi yegore

Kubva pakarenda yepakati nepakati mwedzi yegore yakawanikwa muzvinyorwa zvemuzana reMiddle Ages zvakaburitswa. Kana pakarenda yeRoma mushure mekushandurwa kwaJulian uko kunokamura gore kuita mwedzi gumi nemaviri, sekuziva kwedu nhasi. Ngatione kuti ndeipi mwedzi eakarenda yekare:

  • Ndira: zita rayo rinobva pamusuwo wezwi uye rine hukama naMwari Janus. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti ndiwo mwedzi unotungamira gore.
  • Kukadzi: vanobva pazita februa zvinoreva kuti mitambo yekuchenesa. Isu tinofanirwa kuziva kuti mukarenda yaJulian makore ese akaparadzaniswa neanai aisvetuka, nepo mune edu iri makore ese mana.
  • Kurume: Iwo mwedzi wakakumikidzwa kuna Mwari weHondo.
  • Kubvumbi: zita rekwakabva harina chokwadi.
  • Chivabvu: zita racho rinogona kubva kuna mwarikadzi wechiRoma Maia ane mutambo waipembererwa nevaRoma mumwedzi iwoyo.
  • Chikumi: zita remwedzi rinobva kumuvambi weRepublic.
  • July: izita mukuremekedza Julius Caesar kuti hapana asidhi mwedzi uno.
  • Nyamavhuvhu: 3030 30 yakanyoreswa kunzi Sextilis, asi kubva muna 8 BC munhuwi waMambo Agasto wakadaidzwa kuti augustus.
  • Gunyana: Inonzi iyi nekuti ndiwo mwedzi wechinomwe kubva munaKurume
  • October: Kare waive mwedzi wechisere kubva munaKurume.
  • Mbudzi: Pakutanga mwedzi wepfumbamwe kubva munaKurume
  • December: Kare mwedzi wegumi kubva munaKurume

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda pamusoro peyekare medieval uye nhoroondo yayo.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
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