Chii chinonzi giravhiti

rudo rwegiravhiti kumapuraneti

La giravhiti isimba rinokweva zvinhu zvine uwandu kune chimwe nechimwe. Simba rayo rinoenderana nekuwanda kwechinhu. Icho chimwe chezvinhu zvina zvinozivikanwa kudyidzana kwenyaya uye zvinogona zvakare kunzi "giravhiti" kana "giravhiti yekudyidzana." Simba rinokwevera pasi isimba ratinonzwa kana nyika ichikwevera zvinhu zvakaripoteredza kusvika pakati paro, sezvinoita simba rinokonzera kuti zvinhu zvidonhe. Ndiwo anokonzera mapuraneti anotenderera zuva, kunyange zvazvo ari kure nezuva, achiri kukwezvwa nekuwanda kwaro.

Muchikamu chino tichakuudza kuti chii chinonzi giravhiti, ndeapi maitiro uye kukosha kwayo.

Chii chinonzi gravity uye chakaonekwa sei

kudzidza kuti chii chinonzi giravhiti

Kusimba kwesimba iri kwakabatana nekumhanya kwemapuraneti: mapuraneti ari padyo nezuva anokurumidza uye mapuraneti ari kure nezuva anononoka. Izvi zvinoratidza kuti simba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi isimba uye, nyangwe richibata zvinhu zvakakura kwazvo kunyangwe zviri kure, simba raro rinodzikira kana zvinhu zvichifamba kubva kune chimwe nechimwe.

Dzidziso yekutanga yegiravhiti yakabva kumuzivi wechiGiriki Aristotle. Kubva panguva yekutanga, vanhu vakanzwisisa kuti kana pasina masimba anovatsigira, zvinhu zvinoparara. Zvisinei, yakanga isiri kusvika muzana remakore rechina BC. C. kuti zvidzidzo zvepamutemo zvemasimba "aizoadzikisa" zvakatanga. C, apo muzivi wechiGiriki Aristotle akarondedzera dzidziso yokutanga.

Muchirevo chayo chikuru, pasi ndiro pakati pezvakasikwa uye, naizvozvo, protagonist yesimba risingaoneki, rinokwezva zvose. Simba iri rainzi "gravitas" munguva dzevaRoma uye raienderana nepfungwa yehuremu, nekuti raisasiyanisa huremu nehuremu hwezvinhu panguva iyoyo.

Dzidziso idzi dzakazochinjwa zvachose naCopernicus naGalileo Galilei. Zvisinei, akanga ari Isaac Newton uyo akauya neshoko rokuti "gravitation." Panguva iyoyo, kuedza kwekutanga kwepamutemo kuyera simba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi kwakaitwa uye dzidziso inonzi mutemo wepasi rose wegiravhiti yakagadzirwa.

Simba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi rinopimwa zvichibva pane zvarinoita, zvinova kukurumidza kwaunodhinda pazvinhu zvinofamba, semuenzaniso, zvinhu mukudonha kwemahara. Pamusoro penyika, kukwirisa uku kunoverengerwa kuita 9.80665 m / s2, uye nhamba iyi inogona kusiyana zvishoma zvichienderana nenzvimbo yedu uye urefu.

Zviyero zvekuyera

astronaut ari muchadenga

Inoyera kukwidzwa kwechinhu chinokwezvwa kune chimwe chinhu chine mumhu mukuru.

Zvichienderana nezvamunoda kudzidza, simba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi rinoyerwa mumagitutu maviri akasiyana:

  • Simba: Kana ikayerwa sesimba, Newton (N) inoshandiswa, inova chikamu cheInternational System (SI) mukukudza Isaac Newton. Gravity isimba rinonzwikwa kana chimwe chinhu chakwezvwa kune chimwe.
  • Acceleration. Muzviitiko izvi, pima kukurumidza kunowanikwa kana chimwe chinhu chakwezvwa kune chimwe chinhu. Nekuti iri kukurumidza, iyo unit m / s2 inoshandiswa.

Zvinofanira kucherechedzwa kuti kupihwa zvinhu zviviri, simba rinonzwikwa nechinhu chimwe nechimwe rakafanana nekuda kwemusimboti wechiito nekuita. Musiyano ndeyekumhanyisa, nekuti misa yakasiyana. Somuenzaniso, simba rinoitwa nepasi pamuviri wedu rakaenzana nesimba rinoshandiswa nemiviri yedu pasi pano. Asi nemhaka yokuti uremu hwapasi hwakakura zvikuru kupfuura uremu hwomuviri wedu, pasi harisati richizokurumidza kana kuti kufamba.

Chii chinonzi gravity mune classical mechanics

chii chinonzi giravhiti

Simba rinokwevera pasi rinoverengwa pachishandiswa mutemo waNewton wesimba rinokwevera pasi rose. Simba regiravhiti mumakanika echinyakare kana eNewtonian rinotevera empirical formula yaNewton, iyo inobata nemasimba uye zvinhu zvemuviri mune inodiwa yakagadziriswa furemu yereferensi. Kugwinya uku inoshanda mune inertial yekutarisa masisitimu, iyo inoonekwa seyakajairika kune zvinangwa zvekutsvaga.

Zvinoenderana neyechinyakare mechanics, giravhiti inotemerwa se:

  • Simba rinogara richikwezva.
  • Inomiririra chiyero chisingaperi.
  • Inoratidza kusimba kwepakati pemhando yepakati.
  • Iyo iri pedyo nemuviri, iyo yakakura kusimba, uye iyo iri pedyo, iyo inopera simba.
  • Inoverengwa pachishandiswa mutemo waNewton weuniversal gravitation.

Mutemo wechisikigo uyu wakakosha zvikuru pakudzidza nezvezvinhu zvakawanda zvakasikwa zviri munyika nepasirese. Dzidziso yaNewton yesimba rinokwevera pasi rose yakanga iri uye inorangarirwa nenyanzvi dzefizikisi dzeBritain. Zvisinei, dzidziso yakakwana yegiravhiti yakataurwa naEinstein mudzidziso yake ine mukurumbira yerelativity.

Dzidziso yaNewton fungidziro yedzidziso yaEinstein, iyo yakakosha pakudzidza nharaunda yechadenga umo simba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi rakakura kudarika zvatinosangana nazvo paNyika.

Zvinoenderana nerelativistic mechanics uye quantum mechanics

Zvinoenderana nerelativistic mechanics, simba regiravhiti mhedzisiro yedeformation yenzvimbo-nguva. Iyo relativistic mechanics ye Einstein akaputsa dzidziso yaNewton mune dzimwe nzvimbo, kunyanya izvo zvinoshanda kune kufunga kwenzvimbo. Sezvo chisiko chose chiri kufamba, mitemo yekare inorasikirwa nokukosha kwayo munhambwe iri pakati penyeredzi uye hapana nzvimbo yepasi rose uye yakatsiga painonongedzera.

Zvinoenderana nerelativistic mechanics, simba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi haringovepo nekudyidzana pakati pezvinhu zviviri zvakakura pazvinenge zviri pedyo nemumwe, asi semugumisiro weiyo geometric deformation yenzvimbo-nguva inokonzerwa nehukuru hwenyeredzi. Izvi zvinoreva kuti simba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi rinogona kukanganisa mamiriro okunze.

Ikozvino hapana quantum dzidziso yegiravhiti. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti iyo subatomic particle physics inobata nayo quantum physics yakasiyana zvikuru nenyeredzi huru kwazvo uye dzidziso yegiravhiti inobatanidza nyika mbiri (quantum nerelativistic).

Dzidziso dzakarongwa kuti kuedza kuita izvi, se loop quantum gravity, superstring theory kana torsion quantity theory. Zvisinei, hapana chimwe chazvo chinogona kusimbiswa.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu munogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve giravhiti uye kukosha kwayo musainzi.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
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