Mufungo we Continental Drift

Continental Drift

Munguva yakapfuura, makondinendi aifungidzirwa kuti akaramba akagadziriswa kwemamirioni emakore. Hapana kana chinhu chaizivikanwa kuti kubhururuka kwepasi kwaive kwakagadzirwa nemahwendefa ayo anotenderera nekutenda kune convection currents yejasi. Zvisinei, musayendisiti Alfred Wegener akaronga iyo dzidziso yekukwira kondinendi. Iyi dzidziso yakataura kuti makondinendi akange avekufamba kwemamirioni emakore uye kuti vachiri kudaro.

Kubva pane izvo zvinogona kutarisirwa, dzidziso iyi yaive shanduko kwazvo pasirese uye geology. Iwe unoda kudzidza zvese nezve kondinendi kukukurwa uye uwane zvakavanzika zvaro?

Dzidziso ye Continental Drift

makondinendi pamwechete

Iyi dzidziso inoreva kune iko iko kufamba kwemahwendefa inotsigira makondinendi uye inofamba pamusoro pemamirioni emakore. Munzvimbo dzese dzenhoroondo yeGeological, makondinendi haana kugara ari munzvimbo imwechete. Pane humbowo hwakateedzana hwatichaona gare gare hwakabatsira Wegener kuramba dzidziso yake.

Iko kufamba kunokonzerwa nekuenderera mberi kwekuumbwa kwezvinhu zvitsva kubva pajasi. Izvi zvinhu zvinogadzirwa mugungwa regungwa. Nenzira iyi, izvo zvitsva zvinhu zvine simba pane iriko uye zvinoita kuti makondinendi achinje.

Kana iwe ukatarisa zvakanyanya pachimiro chemakondinendi ese, zvinoita sekunge America ne Africa zvakabatana. Mune izvi muzivi akaona Francis Bacon mugore ra1620. Nekudaro, haana kutaura chero dzidziso yekuti makondinendi aya akange akagara pamwechete munguva yakapfuura.

Izvi zvakataurwa naAntonio Snider, muAmerican aigara muParis. Muna 1858 akasimudza mukana wekuti makondinendi angave achifamba.

 

Yakanga yatove muna 1915 apo nyanzvi yezvemamiriro ekunze yekuGerman Alfred Wegener akaburitsa bhuku rake rakadanwa "Kwakatangira makondinendi nemakungwa". Mariri akafumura dzidziso yese yeconthational drift. Naizvozvo Wegener anoonekwa semunyori wedzidziso.

Mubhuku akatsanangura maitirwo akaitwa nyika yepasi rose. Ndokunge, makondinendi ese atinawo nhasi akange ari pamwechete achiumba pamwechete. Akadaidza supercontinent iyoyo Pangea. Nekuda kwemasimba epasi ePasi, Pangea yaizotyoka yosuduruka chidimbu nechidimbu. Mushure mekupfuura kwemamirioni emakore, makondinendi aigona kutora chinzvimbo chavanoita nhasi.

Uchapupu uye humbowo

kurongeka kwemakondinendi munguva dzakapfuura

Zvinoenderana nedzidziso iyi, mune ramangwana, mamirioni emakore kubva zvino, makondinendi achasangana zvakare. Chii chakaita kuti zvive zvakakosha kuratidza iyi dzidziso nehumbowo uye humbowo.

Paleomagnetic bvunzo

Hwekutanga humbowo hwakavaita kuti vatende kwaari yaive tsananguro ye paleo magnetism. Nyika magnetic field haina kugara iri munzira imwechete. Nguva nenguva, iyo magnetic field yashanduka. Chii chave iko zvino magineti ekumaodzanyemba pole yaimbove iyo yekuchamhembe, uye zvinopesana. Izvi zvinozivikanwa nekuti mazhinji akakwirira esimbi yezvinhu matombo anowana kutarisisa akananga ikozvino magnetic pole. Magnetic matombo akawanikwa ane kuchamhembe pole kunongedzera kumaodzanyemba pole. Saka, munguva dzekare, inofanira kunge yaive imwe nzira yakatenderedza.

Iyi paleomagnetism yaisakwanisa kuyerwa kusvika kuma1950. Kunyangwe zvaive zvichikwanisika kuyera, mhedzisiro isina kusimba yakatorwa. Zvakadaro, kuongororwa kwezviyero izvi kwakakwanisa kuona kuti makondinendi aive kupi. Iwe unogona kutaura izvi nekutarisa iko kutarisa uye zera rematombo. Neiyi nzira, zvinogona kuratidzwa kuti makondinendi ese akambobatana.

Biological bvunzo

Imwe yemiyedzo yakanetsa kanopfuura kamwe chete yaive ehupenyu. Dzese mhuka nemiti yemiti inowanikwa pamakondinendi akasiyana siyana. Hazvifungidzike kuti zvipenyu zvisiri zvekutama zvinogona kufamba kubva kune imwe kondinendi kuenda kune imwe. Izvo zvinoratidza kuti pane imwe nguva ivo vaive mukondinendi imwechete. Mhando idzi dzaipararira nekufamba kwenguva, sezvo makondinendi aifamba.

Zvakare, kumadokero kweAfrica uye kumabvazuva kweSouth America mafambiro edombo erudzi rumwe chete nezera anowanikwa.

Kumwe kutsvagurudza kwakakonzera bvunzo idzi kwaive kuwanikwa kwemafossils eiyo imwe deciduous fern muSouth America, South Africa, Antarctica, India neAustralia. Ndeapi mamwe marudzi eefern anogona kunge achibva kunzvimbo dzakasiyana? Izvo zvakagumiswa kuti vaigara pamwe chete muPangea. Lystrosaurus reptile fossil yakawanikwa zvakare muSouth Africa, India neAntarctica, uye Mesosaurus zvisaririra muBrazil neSouth Africa.

Ose ari maruva nemhuka zvaive enzvimbo dzakafanana dzinokura nekufamba kwenguva. Kana daro pakati pemakondinendi raive rakanyanya kureba, yega yega mhando yakachinjika kumamiriro matsva.

Humboo humbowo

Izvo zvakatotaurwa kuti iyo micheto ye masherufu emakondinendi eAfrica neAmerica anowirirana zvakakwana. Uye ivo vaimbova mumwe. Uye zvakare, ivo havango fanane chete chimiro chepuzzle, asi kuenderera kwemakomo emakomo eSouth America kondinendi uye Africa. Nhasi gungwa reAtlantic riri kutarisira kupatsanura mitsetse yemakomo iyi.

Paleoclimatic bvunzo

Mamiriro ekunze akabatsirawo kududzirwa kwedzidziso iyi. Uchapupu hwemhando imwechete yekukuvara hwakawanikwa pamakondinendi akasiyana. Parizvino, kondinendi yega yega ine hutongi hwayo hwekunaya, mhepo, tembiricha, nezvimwe. Nekudaro, apo makondinendi ese paakaumba imwe, pakanga paine mamiriro ekunze akabatana.

Zvakare, iwo iwo maamoine deposits akawanikwa muSouth Africa, South America, India neAustralia.

Matanho e Continental Drift

Dzidziso ye Continental Drift

Continental Drift yanga ichiitika mukati meiyo nhoroondo yepasi. Zvinoenderana nechinzvimbo chemakondinendi epasi, hupenyu hwakaumbwa neimwe nzira kana imwe. Izvi zvave kureva kuti kondinendi yekukweva ine mamwe matanho akatanhamara anoratidza kutanga kwekuumbwa kwemakondinendi uye, pamwe nawo, e nzira itsva dzehupenyu. Isu tinorangarira kuti zvipenyu zvinofanirwa kuchinjika kune zvakatipoteredza uye, zvichienderana nemamiriro avo emamiriro ekunze, shanduko inoratidzirwa nehunhu hwakasiyana.

Tichaongorora kuti ndeapi matanho akakura econstitution drift:

  • Anenge makore 1100 bhiriyoni apfuura: kuumbwa kwekutanga supercontinent kwakaitika pasi rinodaidzwa kuti Rodinia. Kupesana nekutenda kwakakurumbira, Pangea aive asiri wekutanga. Kunyangwe zvakadaro, mukana wekuti mamwe makondinendi apfuura akange aripo haubvisirwe kunze, kunyange pasina humbowo hwakakwana.
  • Anenge makore 600 bhiriyoni apfuura: Rodinia akatora makore anosvika mamirioni zana nemakumi mashanu kuita chidimbu uye yechipiri supercontinent inonzi Pannotia yakaumbwa. Yaive nenguva pfupi, yemamiriyoni makumi matanhatu chete emakore.
  • Makore zviuru mazana mashanu nemakumi mashanu apfuura, Pannotia yakakamurwa kuva Gondwana uye Proto-Laurasia.
  • Anenge makore 500 bhiriyoni apfuura: Proto-Laurasia yakakamurwa kuva makondinendi matatu matsva anonzi Laurentia, Siberia neBaltic. Nenzira iyi, chikamu ichi chakaunza 3 nyanza nyowani dzinozivikanwa seIapetus neKhanty.
  • Anenge makore 485 bhiriyoni apfuura: Avalonia yakaparadzaniswa neGondwana (iyo nyika inoenderana neUnited States, Nova Scotia, neEngland. Baltic, Laurentia, neAvalonia zvakapesana kuita Euramérica.
  • Anenge makore 300 bhiriyoni apfuura: kwaingova nemakondinendi maviri chete makuru. Kune rimwe divi, isu tine Pangea. yaivapo makore zviuru mazana maviri nemakumi maviri nemashanu apfuura. Pangea kwaive kuvapo kwechimwe chete supercontinent uko zvipenyu zvese zvakapararira. Kana isu tikatarisa iyo geological nguva chiyero, tinoona kuti iyi supercontinent yaivepo mukati menguva yePermian. Kune rimwe divi, isu tine Siberia. Makondinendi ese ari maviri aive akakomberedzwa nePanthalassa Ocean, iro chete gungwa riripo.
  • Laurasia naGondwana: Nekuda kwekuparadzana kwePangea, Laurasia naGondwana vakaumbwa. Antarctica yakatangawo kuumbika mukati menguva yeTriassic. Izvo zvakaitika mazana emamirioni emakore apfuura uye mutsauko wemarudzi ezvisikwa zvipenyu akatanga kuitika.

Parizvino kugoverwa kwezvinhu zvipenyu

Kunyangwe hazvo makondinendi akange apatsanurwa yega yega mhando ikawana bazi idzva mukushanduka, pane mhando dzine hunhu hwakafanana pamakondinendi akasiyana. Kuongorora uku kune hutachiona hwakafanana nemarudzi kubva kumamwe makondinendi. Musiyano uripo pakati pavo ndewekuti ivo vakashanduka nekufamba kwenguva nekuzviwana ivo vari mune itsva marongero. Muenzaniso weizvi ndeuyu hozhwa yegadheni iyo yakawanikwa muNorth America neEurasia.

Nouchapupu hwese uhwu, Wegener akaedza kudzivirira dzidziso yake. Dzese idzi nharo dzaive dzakatendeseka kune vesaenzi nzanga. Akange anyatso tsvaga chairo chikuru chaizobvumira budiriro yesainzi.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
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  1.   Juan Pablo akadaro

    Ndinoifarira, dzidziso inoita senge yakanaka uye ndinotenda kuti America ne Africa vangadai vakabatana nekuti zvinoita kunge chirahwe. 🙂