Dutsen dutsen Etna

etna volcano ya fashe

Daga cikin fitattun tsaunuka masu aman wuta a duk Turai akwai Dutsen dutsen Etna. An kuma san shi da Dutsen Etna kuma dutsen mai aman wuta ne da ke gabar tekun gabas na Sicily a kudancin Italiya. An dauke ta mafi girman dutsen mai fitad da wuta a duk kasashen Turai tun tana fashewa a cikin 'yan shekaru. Dutsen mai aman wuta ne wanda ke jan hankalin yawon bude ido da yawa kuma shine babban tushen samun kudin shiga ga tsibirin.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku game da halaye, fashewar abubuwa da abubuwan ban mamaki na dutsen Etna.

Babban fasali

aman wuta a sicily

Wannan dutsen mai aman wuta ya mamaye birnin Catania da ke tsibirin Sicily. Tana girma kusan shekaru 500.000 kuma tana da fashewar abubuwa da yawa waɗanda suka fara a 2001. Ta fuskanci fashewar abubuwa da yawa, gami da fashewar tashin hankali da kwararar kwararar ruwa. Fiye da 25% na yawan mutanen Sicily suna zaune a gangaren Dutsen Etna, wanda shine babban tushen samun kudin shiga na tsibirin, gami da aikin gona (saboda yawan arzikin ƙasa mai aman wuta) da yawon buɗe ido.

A tsayin sama da mita 3.300, ita ce mafi girma da faɗin dutsen mai aman wuta a nahiyar Turai, mafi tsayi a cikin kwarin Bahar Rum da kuma mafi tsayi a Italiya a kudancin Alps. Yana kallon Tekun Ionian zuwa gabas, Kogin Simito zuwa yamma da kudu, da Kogin Alcantara zuwa arewa.

Dutsen mai aman wuta ya rufe kusan murabba'in kilomita 1.600, yana da diamita kusan kilomita 35 daga arewa zuwa kudu, kewaye kimanin kilomita 200 da girman kusan murabba'in kilomita 500.

Daga matakin teku zuwa saman dutsen, yanayin shimfidar wuri da canjin mazaunin yana da ban mamaki, tare da wadatattun abubuwan al'ajabi na halitta. Duk wannan ya sa wannan wurin ya zama na musamman ga masu yawo, masu daukar hoto, masu nazarin halitta, masanan duwatsu, 'yanci na ruhaniya, da masu son ƙasa da aljanna. Gabashin Sicily yana nuna fannoni daban -daban, amma daga mahangar ilimin ƙasa, shi ma yana ba da bambancin ban mamaki.

Etna volcano geology

volcano etna

Halayen ilimin ƙasa ya nuna cewa Dutsen Volna yana aiki tun ƙarshen Neogene (wato shekaru miliyan 2,6 na ƙarshe). Wannan dutsen mai aman wuta yana da cibiyar ayyuka fiye da ɗaya. An kafa wasu mazhabobi na sakandare da yawa a cikin tsutsotsi masu jujjuyawar da ke ƙaruwa daga tsakiya zuwa tarnaƙi. Tsarin dutsen yanzu shine sakamakon ayyukan aƙalla manyan cibiyoyi biyu na fashewa.

A nisan kusan kilomita 200, wucewa ta lardunan Messina, Catania da Syracuse, akwai faranti tectonic daban -daban guda biyu tare da nau'ikan dutsen daban -daban, daga duwatsun metamorphic zuwa duwatsu masu ƙanƙara da ɓoyayyiyar ƙasa, yankin karkatarwa, kurakuran yanki da yawa. Dutsen Etna, tsaunukan wuta masu aiki a Tsibirin Aeolian da kuma fitowar tsoffin ayyukan dutsen a saman tudun Ibleos.

Akwai gindin ƙasa mai kauri a ƙarƙashin Dutsen Etna, wanda zai iya kaiwa tsayin mita 1.000, yana yin kaurin dutsen mai aman wuta. tara a cikin shekaru 500.000 shine kusan mita 2.000.

Yankunan arewa da yamma na duwatsun da ke ƙasa a ƙarƙashin dutsen mai aman wuta sune jerin Miocene yumbu-turbidite (wanda aka samar ta hanyar ruwa da ke ɗauke da ruwan teku), yayin da kudanci da gabas sune albarkatun ruwa na Pleistocene.

A akasin wannan, saboda ilimin ilimin ruwa na wannan dutsen mai aman wuta, yankin ya fi wadatar ruwa fiye da sauran Sicily. A zahiri, lava yana da ƙima sosai, yana aiki kamar ruwa mai ruwa, kuma yana zaune a kan tushe mara ƙima. Muna iya tunanin Dutsen Etna a matsayin babban soso wanda zai iya sha ruwan sama na hunturu da dusar ƙanƙara. Duk wannan ruwan yana tafiya ta jikin dutsen mai aman wuta kuma a ƙarshe yana fitowa cikin maɓuɓɓugar ruwa, musamman kusa da mu'amala tsakanin duwatsun da ba za su iya shiga ba.

Rushewa da faranti tectonic na dutsen dutsen Etna

Fashewar tsautsayi

Tsakanin 2002 da 2003, mafi girman jerin fashewar aman wuta a cikin shekaru masu yawa sun fito da manyan toka, wanda za a iya gani cikin sauƙi daga sararin samaniya, zuwa Libya, a ɗaya gefen Tekun Bahar Rum.

Ayyukan girgizar ƙasa a lokacin fashewar ya sa gabashin dutsen mai aman wuta ya faɗi ƙasa da mita biyu, kuma gidaje da yawa a gefen dutsen sun sami lalacewar tsarin. Fashewar ta kuma lalata Rifugio Sapienza gaba daya a kudancin dutsen mai aman wuta.

Akwai ra'ayoyi da yawa game da dalilin da yasa dutsen dutsen Etna ke aiki sosai. Kamar sauran dutsen mai aman wuta na Rum kamar Stromboli da Vesuvius, yana kan iyakar mamayewa, da farantin tectonic na Afirka ana tura shi ƙarƙashin farantin Eurasia. Kodayake suna da alama kusa da ƙasa, dutsen Etna a zahiri ya sha bamban da sauran tsaunukan. Haƙiƙa ɓangare ne na arc daban -daban. Etna, maimakon zama kai tsaye a cikin yankin karkatarwa, a zahiri yana zaune a gabanta.

Kasancewa a kan kuskuren aiki tsakanin farantin Afirka da microplate na Ionian, suna zamewa a ƙarƙashin farantin Eurasian. Shaidu na yanzu suna nuna cewa farantan ionic masu ƙyalƙyali na iya karyewa, waɗanda wasu faranti na Afirka masu nauyi suka ja da baya. Magma kai tsaye daga alkyabbar Duniya tana shakar sararin samaniya da farantin ionic mai karkatawa.

Wannan sabon abu na iya bayyana nau'in lava da fashewar Dutsen Etna ya haifar, kwatankwacin nau'in lava da aka samar tare da ramukan zurfin teku, inda ake tilasta magma na alkyabba ya ratsa cikin ɓawon burodi. Lava daga wasu tsaunuka masu aman wuta suna daga cikin nau'in da narkewar ɓawon burodin da ake da shi ya ɓarke ​​maimakon fashewar mayafin mayafi.

Curiosities

Wasu daga cikin abubuwan jan hankali na wannan dutsen mai aman wuta sune kamar haka:

  • Ya fito a fim din Star Wars
  • An yi ƙoƙari da yawa don sarrafa kwararar ruwan da ke barazanar lalata birnin Catania.
  • Yana da stratovolcano. Ana daukar irin wannan dutsen mai aman wuta a matsayin daya daga cikin mafi hatsari saboda fashewar sa mai tsananin fashewa.
  • Sunan Etna yana nufin "Na ƙone."
  • Wasu daga cikin lava daga dutsen mai aman wuta ya kai shekaru 300.000.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da dutsen dutsen Etna da halayensa.


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