menene meridians

Greenwich Meridian

Duk mun ga taswirar daidaitawa inda akwai alamar meridians. Akwai mutane da yawa waɗanda ba su da masaniya sosai menene meridians. Meridians da masu kamanceceniya su ne layukan hasashe guda biyu waɗanda galibi ake tsara duniya ta hanyar ƙasa. Tare da su, an kafa tsarin haɗin gwiwa wanda ke ba da damar daidaitaccen wurin kowane wuri a duniya bisa latitude da longitude.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku abin da meridians suke, menene halayen su da muhimmancin su.

menene meridians

menene meridians

Musamman, meridian shine layin tsaye wanda zamu iya raba duniya zuwa sassa daidai. Dukkansu sun fara ne daga Pole ta Arewa suka bazu zuwa Kudu (da akasin haka). Layukan layi daya, a daya bangaren. layukan kwance iri daya ne. Layin layi daya 0 shine equator. Maimaita sauran kamanceceniya ta zana ƙananan da'irori a arewaci da kudanci. Haɗin waɗannan saitin layukan biyu suna samar da grid.

Duk nau'ikan layukan biyu suna da ma'anar tunani daga inda za'a iya ƙididdige layukan tsayi da latitude, ta amfani da sexagesimal (an nuna kamar haka: digiri°, mintuna, da sakan):

  • Meridiyawa. Ana auna su akan ƙimar kowane kusurwa (1°), farawa daga abin da ake kira 0° meridian ko Greenwich meridian, daidai wurin da ke fadin London inda Royal Greenwich Observatory ya taɓa tsayawa. Daga nan za a iya la'akari da meridians gabas ko yamma, dangane da yadda suke fuskantar wannan axis, kuma an raba ƙasa zuwa kashi 360 ko "gajos".
  • Daidaici. Ana auna su daga equator, la’akari da kusurwoyin da suke yi dangane da jujjuyawar duniya: 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° da 75°, duk a cikin yankin arewa (misali, 30°N) , kamar kudu (30° S).

Aplicaciones

tsara taswira

Tasirin aikace-aikacen wannan tsarin ya zama:

  • Tsarin yankin lokaci, Meridian ya ƙaddara. A halin yanzu, ana amfani da tsarin GMT (Greenwich Mean Time, "Greenwich Mean Time") don wakiltar lokaci a kowane yanki na duniya, ƙara ko rage sa'o'i bisa ga meridian da ke mulkin kowace ƙasa. Misali, yankin lokacin Argentina shine GMT-3, yayin da Pakistan yankin lokaci shine GMT+5.
  • Tsarin yanayi na duniya, ƙaddara ta hanyar layi ɗaya. Daga cikin abin da ake kira daidaitattun guda biyar, sune (daga arewa zuwa kudu): Arctic Circle (66° 32' 30» N), Tropic of Cancer (23° 27' N), Equator (0°), Tropic of Cancer. (23 ° 27' S) da Antarctic Circle (66° 33' S), Duniya ta kasu kashi-kashi na yanayi ko yanayin sararin samaniya, wadanda su ne: wurare masu zafi, yankuna biyu masu zafi da glacial ko polar zones biyu. Kowannensu yana da yanayin yanayi iri ɗaya saboda wurin latitude.
  • Tsarin daidaitawa na duniya. Wannan yana ba da damar amfani da kayan aikin ƙasa kamar GPS (Tsarin Matsayin Duniya, "Tsarin Matsayin Duniya").

Kamar yadda muka gani a cikin al'amarin da ya gabata, grid yana tasowa daga haɗuwa da meridians (longitudes) da latitudes (latitudes). Tsarin daidaita yanayin yanki ya ƙunshi wakilcin ƙimar ma'anar yanki daga lissafin latitude da tsayi a cikin sexagesimal.

Alal misali, tsarin haɗin gwiwar Moscow shine 55 ° 45' 8" N (wato, latitude a arewacin hemisphere tsakanin 55th da 56th parallel) da 37 ° 36' 56" E (wato, tsayinsa) shine. yana tsakanin daidaici 37 da 38 tsakanin warps). A yau, hanyoyin sanya tauraron dan adam kamar GPS suna aiki tare da tsarin.

Greenwich Meridian

daidaici da meridians

Hanya mafi kyau don sanin Greenwich Meridian ita ce zuwa London, wanda aka haife shi a Royal Greenwich Observatory, kudu da babban birnin Burtaniya. Ba a san wurin ba, amma wuri ne mai kyau na hutu don tafiya zuwa London a cikin kwanaki 3. The Royal Greenwich Observatory batu ne na tunani don fahimtar lokacin da dalilin da yasa Greenwich Meridian ya bayyana.

Royal Greenwich Observatory ta gudanar da nune-nunen kan mahimmancin lokaci, yadda aka tsara meridian, da kuma yarjejeniyoyi da suka biyo baya daga ƙasashen duniya don kafa jadawalin ta hanyar sa. Hakanan, daga yanayin inda gidan kallo yake, zaku iya ganin wani sabon abu game da Landan (muddin akwai rana).

Ana amfani da Greenwich Meridian don alamar daidaitaccen lokacin duniya. Wannan yarjejeniya ce, kuma an amince da ita a Greenwich, domin a taron duniya da aka yi a 1884. an ƙaddara shine asalin sifilin meridian. A lokacin, daular Birtaniyya tana cikin mafi girman lokacinta na fadadawa, kuma ana bukatar hakan. Da a ce daular a wancan lokacin ta banbanta, da a yau za mu ce wani wuri daban, kamar sifilin meridian. An fara daga Greenwich Meridian, an saita yankin lokacin da ya dace ga kowace ƙasa da yanki.

Halin da ake ciki a kasashen Turai yana da ban mamaki saboda akwai yankuna da yawa a nahiyar Turai, amma bisa ga umarnin 2000/84, kasashen da ke cikin Tarayyar Turai sun yanke shawarar kiyaye lokaci guda a kowane yanki na lokaci don inganta harkokin siyasa da kasuwanci. . An yi amfani da wannan al'ada a ƙasashe da yawa tun bayan yakin duniya na farko, lokacin da aka yi amfani da shi azaman hanyar adana mai. Amma Greenwich Meridian koyaushe ana amfani dashi azaman tunani.

Canjin lokaci a cikin hunturu yana faruwa ne a ranar Lahadin da ta gabata a cikin Oktoba kuma ya haɗa da motsa agogo gaba awa ɗaya. A gefe guda kuma, canjin lokaci a lokacin bazara yana faruwa ne a ranar Lahadi ta ƙarshe a cikin Maris, wanda ke nufin ciyar da agogo gaba awa ɗaya.

Wurin Haihuwar Greenwich Meridian ita ce Landan. Kamar yadda muka nuna a baya, wannan meridian ya haɗu da Poles na Arewa da Kudu, don haka ya mamaye ƙasashe da yawa da maki da yawa. Misali, Greenwich Meridian ya ratsa birnin Castellón de la Plana na Spain. Ana samun wata alamar hanyar wucewar Meridian a cikin kilomita 82.500 na babbar hanyar AP-2 a Huesca.

Amma, a zahiri, Meridian tana ratsa kusan dukkanin gabashin Spain, daga shigarta Pyrenees har zuwa fitarta ta matatar El Serrallo a Castellón de la Plana.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da menene meridians da halayensu.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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