Duwatsu na Caucasus

duwatsu caucasus

Daya daga cikin sanannun tsaunuka a duniya don a ɗauka azaman rabewar nahiya tsakanin nahiyar Asiya da Turai sune duwatsu caucasus. Yana daya daga cikin tsaunukan tsauni mafi tsayi a Turai kuma yana da kololuwa da yawa wadanda suka wuce mita 4.000 a tsayi. Tsarin tsauni yana cikin wannan yankin tsakanin Bahar Maliya da Tekun Caspian. Duk wannan yanki yana da babban yare da yare tunda ya kasance wurin haduwa don kasuwanci tsakanin mutane sama da shekaru 2.000 da suka gabata.

Daga wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk halaye, asali, samuwar da yanayin ƙasa na tsaunukan Caucasus.

Babban fasali

Caucasus

Kasashe shida suna da wasu tsaunuka a yankunansu: Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan da Russia, ban da Jamhuriyar Chechnya, Dagestan, Ayaria, Adygea, Ingushetia, Kabardia-Balkar, Karachay-Cherkesia, Nakhichevan da North Ossetia . Kudancin tsaunukan kudu sun mamaye Armenia, Georgia da Azerbaijan, kuma asalinsu na kabila da yare sun sha bamban.

Shekaru da yawa, ƙabilu daban-daban da 'yan tsiraru suna ta gwagwarmayar neman' yanci ko cin gashin kai, abin da ya haifar da yankin da ke cike da manyan matsaloli da yake-yake. A lokacin Yaƙin Caucasus na 1817 zuwa 1864, Masarautar Rasha ta haɗu da yankuna da yawa a arewa, kuma ba za a lamunce zaman lafiya ba har a yau.

Yankin tsaunuka ne, kodayake tsayinsa na iya cin karo da na tsawan Alps. A matsakaita, kololuwar su na da girma, tsakanin mita 2.000 da 3.000 sama da matakin teku. An kiyasta cewa akwai sama da kololuwa 20 a cikin Caucasus wadanda suka fi Mont Blanc, dutse mafi tsayi a tsaunukan Alps. Sabanin haka, mafi girman tsauni a tsaunukan Caucasus shine Dutsen Elbrus, wanda yake tsaye kimanin mil 5.642 sama da matakin teku.

Yanayin kasa na Caucasus

tsoffin ƙauyuka

Wannan tsarin tsaunukan ya faro ne daga kudu maso gabashin Turai zuwa Asiya daga gabashin gabar Bahar Maliya zuwa tekun Caspian, daga gabas zuwa yamma. Faɗin sa mai canzawa ne, har zuwa kilomita 160. Girman tsaunin tsauni yana ƙaruwa daga matuƙa, kuma a cikin ɓangaren tsakiya ne ake samun kololuwa mafi girma, gami da Mount Elbrús.

Yankin kasa ya kasu zuwa Babban Caucasus a arewa da Little Caucasus a kudu. Babban Caucasus shine mafi girma kuma shine babban tsaunin tsauni a cikin dukkan tsarin. Ya faro daga yankin Taman zuwa Yankin Absheron a cikin Tekun Caspian kuma ya kasu kashi uku: Yammacin Caucasus, Tsakiyar Caucasus, da Gabashin Caucasus. Babban Caucasus da Caananan Caucasus sun rabu da raunin Transcaucasus, wanda kwari ne kwatankwacinsa da faɗin kusan kilomita 100, wanda ya haɗu da Tekun Bahar Maliya da kuma Tekun Caspian.

Yanayin Caucasus

Yanayi da yanayin yanayin ƙasa suna sa mafi yawan tsaunukansa sun zama kufai fiye da Alps. Yankunan da ke kusa da Bahar Maliya sun fi zafi; ya bambanta, Tekun Caspian mai bushewa ya sa yankin Gabas yana da yanayi mara kyau ko yanayi mara hamada. A cikin tsaunukan yamma sauyin yanayi ya zama subtropical, don haka yanayin canjin gabas da yamma ya zama akasi.

Akwai kankara a yamma da kuma tsakiyar. Layin kankara yakan fara tsakanin mita 2.800 da 3.000. Koyaya, Karamin Caucasus bashi da kankara kamar Babbar Caucasus. Theananan tsaunukan da suka raba baƙin ciki na Transcaucasia suna yin shinge tsakanin yanayi daban-daban na gabas da yamma. Karamin Caucasus yana haɗuwa da Babban Caucasus ta theananan Lich Mountains, an raba shi gabas da Kogin Kura.

Horo

geology

Waɗannan duwatsu sun tsufa sosai. Yawancin duwatsu sun koma daga Cretaceous da Jurassic, kuma mafi girman daukaka shine Precambrian. Kamar yawancin tsaunuka a duniya, sun samo asali ne ta hanyar karowar farantin tectonic; a wannan yanayin, daga farantin Larabawa da Eurasia.

Hakan ya fara ne lokacin da Larabawa suka fara tafiya arewa har sai sun yi karo da farantin Iran kuma Tekun Tethys ya rufe. Yunkurin ya dau tsawon lokaci sannan yayi karo da farantin Eurasia, wanda ya dauke dutsen saboda tsananin matsi a tsakanin su. Manyan tsaunukan Caucasus sun fara ɗaukar hoto kuma erananan ucananan Caucasus daga ƙarshe sun ɗauki hoto.

A cikin Cenozoic, dutsen volananan Caucasus yana aiki. Ban da wasu duwatsu masu aman wuta a Yankin Absheron, dutsen da ya wanzu a yankin yanzu ya mutu.

Flora da fauna

Saboda Yammacin Caucasus yana da yanayin yanayin ƙasa, ciyayi sun fi na Caucasus na Gabas yawa. Gabaɗaya, akwai hamada, filayen ciyayi, dausayi masu tsayi, fadama, da gandun daji a gefen tsaunuka. A cewar Asusun Duniya na Yanayi (WWF), akwai fiye da nau'in tsirrai 10,000 a cikin gandun daji da aka gauraya, daga cikinsu sama da 1,500 tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire ne, fiye da kashin baya 700 da kifayen 20,000. Yammacin Caucasus yana ɗaya daga cikin yan tsirarun yankuna masu duwatsu a Turai tare da ɗan tasirin ɗan adam, inda za'a iya lura da yanayin halittu daban-daban, daga cikinsu akwai filayen mai tsayi da ƙananan filaye waɗanda kawai ke rayuwa a cikin namun daji.

A cikin dajin ta, akwai fiye da nau'in shuka na 10,000, na wanda sama da 1,500 shuke-shuke ne masu dinbin yawa. Endemic flat sune keɓaɓɓun wuraren kuma ba za'a iya samunsu a ko'ina ba. Waɗannan tsire-tsire ne suke ba da ƙarin darajar ga bambancin halittu na waɗannan duwatsu tun da yake nau'ikan keɓaɓɓu ne na waɗannan halittu. Waɗannan shuke-shuke ne waɗanda suka sami damar daidaitawa da waɗannan mahalli na musamman na muhalli kuma ba za a same su ko'ina ba.

Kamar yadda kake gani, waɗannan duwatsu suna da adadi mai yawa na tarihi da wadata kuma, sabili da haka, wasu sanannun sanannun mutane ne a duniya. Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da Caucasus, halayensa da flora da fauna.


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