Yini i-glacier nokuthi yakhiwa kanjani

ukwakheka kweqhwa

Izinguzunga zeqhwa yizinkumbi zeqhwa ezicindezelwe ezakha ngaphezu kwezinkulungwane zeminyaka. Ukwehla okuqhubekayo kweqhwa namazinga okushisa aphansi angaphansi kwezingu-0 degrees ngokuqhubekayo kubangela ukuba iqhwa linqwabelene endaweni efanayo, okulenza liguquke libe yiqhwa. Ama-glaciers yizinto ezinkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni wethu futhi yize zibukeka zilungisiwe, ziyahamba. Zingageleza kancane njengemifula futhi zidlule phakathi kwezintaba zakha ama-crevasses kanye ne-glacial relief. Bangakha futhi amatshe namachibi.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngamaqhwa eqhwa, imvelaphi yawo kanye nezici zawo.

Yini inguzunga yeqhwa

izinguzunga zeqhwa

Inguzunga yeqhwa ibhekwa njengensalela yokugcina Ice Age. Ngalesi sikhathi, amazinga okushisa aphansi aphoqelele iqhwa ukuba liye ezindaweni eziphansi lapho isimo sezulu sesifudumele khona manje. Njengamanje, singathola izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinguzunga zeqhwa ezintabeni zawo wonke amazwekazi ngaphandle kwe-Australia nezinye iziqhingi zasolwandle. Phakathi kwama-latitude ama-35 ° enyakatho kanye no-35 ° eningizimu yeqhwa kungabonakala kuphela Izintaba ZaseRocky, e-Andes, eHimalaya, eNew Guinea, eMexico, eMpumalanga Afrika naseNtabeni iZard Kuh (Iran).

Inani lobuso izingulube zeqhwa elihlala kulo cishe kwakha u-10% wawo wonke umhlaba womhlaba. Imvamisa zivela ezindaweni eziphakeme zezintaba ngoba izimo zemvelo ziyavumelana nazo. Lokho wukuthi, kunamazinga okushisa aphansi nemvula ephezulu. Siyazi ukuthi kukhona uhlobo lwemvula olwaziwa ngegama lemvula yezintaba, olwenzeka lapho umoya uphakama phezulu bese ugcina upholile bese imvula iwela phezulu ezintabeni. Uma amazinga okushisa engaphansi kuka-0 degrees ngokuqhubekayo, lezi zimvula ziyoba ngesimo seqhwa futhi zizogcina zibeke kuze kube yilapho zakha izinguzunga zeqhwa.

Izinguzunga zeqhwa ezivela ezintabeni eziphakeme nasezifundeni ezibandayo zinikezwa amagama ahlukene. Lokho okuvela ezintabeni eziphakeme kubizwa ngokuthi ama-alpine glaciers ngenkathi izinguzunga zeqhwa ezigxotsheni zaziwa ngokuthi ama-ice caps. Ngesikhathi sonyaka esifudumele, abanye badedela amanzi ancibilikayo ngenxa yokuncibilika kwawo, kwakheke imizimba ebalulekile yamanzi yezilwane nezitshalo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ilusizo kakhulu kubantu ngoba la manzi asetshenziselwa ukulethwa ngabantu. Yichibi elikhulu kunawo wonke lamanzi ahlanzekile emhlabeni, aqukethe cishe izingxenye ezintathu kwezine zawo.

Ukuziqeqesha

iqhwa lentaba

Ake sibheke ukuthi yiziphi izinyathelo eziyinhloko ezenzekayo zokwakhiwa kweqhwa. Siqukethe unomphela weqhwa endaweni efanayo unyaka wonke. Uma indawo inamazinga okushisa aphansi ngokungaguquguquki iqhwa ligcinwa kuze kwakheke iqhwa. Emkhathini, wonke ama-molecule omphunga wamanzi anamathela ezinhlayiyaneni ezincane zothuli bese enza izakhiwo zekristalu. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho amanye ama-molecule omphunga wamanzi enamathela kumakristalu akhiwa futhi amakhekheba eqhwa esijwayele ukuwabona akhiwa.

Amakhekheba eqhwa awela engxenyeni ephakeme kakhulu yezintaba futhi agcinwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngemuva kokuwa kweqhwa okuqhubekayo. Lapho kunqwabelana iqhwa elanele, izakhiwo zeqhwa ziqala ukwakha. Unyaka nonyaka isisindo sezingqimba ezintsha zeqhwa esiqongelelane sihlanganisa ukwakheka kweqhwa kakhulu futhi sidale ukuthi iqhwa liphinde likhanye futhi kusukela umoya ophakathi kwamakristalu uncipha. Ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho amakristalu ekhula futhi iqhwa eligcwele ligcwala ngamandla. Amanye amaphuzu avumela ingcindezi yeqhwa bese eqala ukwehla futhi bakha uhlobo lomfula okuthi ekugcineni ngakunye kube nokukhululeka okumise okwe-U.

Ukudlula kwenguzunga yeqhwa kungena emvelweni kudala ukukhululeka okwaziwa ngokuthi ukukhululeka kweqhwa. Kuyaziwa nangokuthi i-glacier modeling. Iqhwa liqala ukufinyelela kulayini wokulingana lapho ngaphezulu komugqa uthola isisindo esikhulu kunalokho osilahlekile kepha ngezansi ulahlekelwe kunalokho onqobayo. Le nqubo ivame ukuthatha iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-100 ukuthi yenzeke.

Izingxenye zeqhwa

amandla eqhwa

Inguzunga yeqhwa yakhiwa izingxenye ezahlukahlukene.

  • Indawo yokuqongelela. Yindawo ephakeme kakhulu lapho iqhwa liwela futhi liqoqeke khona.
  • Indawo ye-Ablation. Kule ndawo izinqubo zokuhlangana nokuhwamuka zenzeka. Yilapho i-glacier ifinyelela khona ibhalansi phakathi kokukhuphuka nokulahleka kwesisindo.
  • Ukuqhekeka. Yizindawo lapho i-glacier igeleza ngokushesha khona.
  • AmaMoraines. Lawa ngamabhande amnyama akhiwa izidalwa ezakha emaphethelweni naseziqongweni. Amatshe ahudulwe yiqhwa ayagcinwa akhiwe kulezi zindawo.
  • Isikhumulo. Kuphela ekugcineni kweqhwa lapho iqhwa eliqongelelekile liyancibilika khona.

Izinhlobo ze-glacier ezikhona

I-glacier ingahlukaniswa ngezindlela eziningi, yize kuya ngemodeli yayo nokwakheka kwayo. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ezikhona:

  • Iqhwa le-Alpine: Kuyaziwa nangokuthi igama leqhwa lentaba futhi yilawo akhiqizwa ezintabeni eziphakeme ngokuqongelelwa kweqhwa.
  • Isekisi leqhwa: kuyisitsha esimise okweqanda lapho amanzi aqoqeka khona kancane kancane.
  • Amachibi e-Glacial: Yizindawo zokubeka amanzi ezisukela ezindaweni eziphansi kwesigodi futhi kunezikhathi lapho ziba yiqhwa kanti ezinye zibe zingekho.
  • Isigodi seGlacier: lo mphumela wesenzo sokuqhuma kolimi lweqhwa. Imvamisa inesigodi esimise okwe-U futhi yakha ukwakheka kwamadwala okude.
  • I-Inlandsis: zingabantu abaningi beqhwa abamboza ngokuphelele yonke indawo futhi bagcina ngokuhamba ngamandla kuya olwandle.
  • Ama-Drumlins: Yizindunduma ezakhiwe ngezinto ezisentabeni ezihudulwe yiqhwa lapho lihamba.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngeqhwa nezimpawu zalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.