Uyini umkhathi

yini indawo yonke

¿Uyini umkhathi? Ungomunye wemibuzo ebuzwa kakhulu ososayensi kuwo wonke umlando. Ngempela, indawo yonke iyikho konke, ngaphandle kokuhlukile. Singafaka ezintweni zomhlaba, amandla, isikhala nesikhathi nakho konke okukhona. Kodwa-ke, lapho kukhulunywa ngokuthi indawo yonke iyini, kukhulunywa kakhulu ngomkhathi ongaphandle wePlanethi.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ukuthi iyini indawo yonke, izici zayo kanye neminye imibono.

Uyini umkhathi

uyini umkhathi nemithala

Umkhathi mkhulu kakhulu, kepha kungenzeka ungapheli. Uma kunjalo, kuzoba nodaba olungenamkhawulo enkanyezini engenamkhawulo, okuyinto engekho. Ngokuphambene nalokho, maqondana nendaba, ikakhulukazi isikhala esingenalutho. Abanye abantu baze bathi indawo yonke esiphila kuyo akuyona eyangempela, iyihologram.

Indawo yonke eyaziwayo iqukethe imithala, amaqoqo emithala, nezakhiwo ezinkudlwana ezibizwa ngama-superclusters, kanye nodaba lwe-intergalactic. Ngaphandle kobuchwepheshe obuthuthukile obutholakalayo namuhla, namanje asibazi ubukhulu bayo ngqo. Izinto azisatshalaliswa ngokufanayo, kepha zigxila ezindaweni ezithile: imithala, izinkanyezi, amaplanethi, njll. Kodwa-ke, i-90% yobukhona ithathwa njengendaba emnyama esingakwazi ukuyibona.

Indawo yonke inezilinganiso okungenani ezine ezaziwayo: ezintathu esikhaleni (ubude, ukuphakama, nobubanzi) kanye nesikhathi esisodwa. Ngenxa yamandla amakhulu adonsela phansi, inamathela ndawonye futhi iqhubeke ngokuqhubekayo. Uma kuqhathaniswa nesibhakabhaka, iplanethi yethu incane kakhulu. Siyingxenye yesimiso sonozungezilanga, esilahlekile ezandleni zeMilky Way. IMilky Way inezinkanyezi eziyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyikhulu, kodwa kumane kungomunye wemithala eyizigidigidi eyakha isimiso sonozungezilanga.

Ukwakheka nokubhujiswa

Umbono weBig Bang uchaza ukuthi wenziwa kanjani. Lo mbono wokuthi cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-13.700 edlule, udaba lwalunobuningi obungapheli nokushisa. Kube nokuqhuma okunodlame futhi ukuminyana nokushisa kwendawo yonke bekulokhu kuncipha kusukela lapho.

IBig Bang ingubunye, okuhlukile okungenakuchazwa yimithetho ye-physics. Singakwazi okwenzekile kusukela ekuqaleni, kepha namanje ayikho incazelo yesayensi yesikhashana zero nosayizi zero. Kuze kudalulwe le mfihlakalo, ososayensi ngeke bakwazi ukuchaza ngokuqiniseka okuphelele ukuthi yini indawo yonke.

Njengamanje, kunochungechunge lwemibono ethi ngemuva kwe-hypothesis ichaze ukuthi bacabanga ukuthi ukuphela kwendawo yonke kuzoba njani. Ukuqala, singakhuluma ngemodeli ye- Ukubamba Okukhulu, okuchaza ukuthi ukwanda okuqhubekayo kwendawo yonke kuzodala (kungakapheli iminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane) ukuqothulwa kwazo zonke izinkanyezi, okuholele endaweni ebandayo futhi emnyama.

Singasho futhi ngombono we Ukuqhuma okukhulu (noma ukukhala okukhulu) okuphakamisa ukuthi lapho umkhathi uyanda kakhulu, kukhiqizwa amandla amnyama kakhulu, afinyelela eqophelweni ngesikhathi lapho amandla amnyama ezokwehlula amandla adonsela phansi, ephula ibhalansi ekhona phakathi kwamandla womabili futhi idala ukuhlakazeka. kwanoma yiluphi uhlobo ndaba.

Ukubaluleka kwendaba emnyama

indaba emnyama

Ku-astrophysics, izingxenye ze-cosmic ngaphandle kwe-baryonic matter (into ejwayelekile), i-neutrinos, namandla amnyama abizwa ngokuthi into emnyama. Igama layo livela eqinisweni lokuthi ayikhiphi imisebe kagesi noma ihlanganyele nemisebe kagesi nganoma iyiphi indlela, iyenze ingabonakali kulo lonke uhla lwemisebe kagesi. Kodwa-ke, akufanele kudidaniswe ne-antimatter.

Indaba emnyama imele u-25% wobukhulu bendawo yonke, ngenxa yethonya lokudonsela phansi kwalo. Kunezimpawu eziqinile zobukhona bayo, ezitholakala ezintweni zezinkanyezi ezizungezile. Eqinisweni, ukuthi kungenzeka ukuba khona kwayo kwahlongozwa okokuqala ngo-1933, lapho isazi sezinkanyezi saseSwitzerland nesazi sefiziksi uFritz Zwicky siveza ukuthi "isisindo esingabonakali" sithinta ijubane lomgwaqo lamaqoqo emithala. Kusukela lapho, okunye okuningi ukubonwa kuye kwaveza njalo ukuthi kungenzeka kube khona.

Kuncane okwaziwayo ngendaba emnyama. Ukwakheka kwayo kuyimfihlakalo, kepha kungenzeka ukuthi yenziwa ngama-neutrinos ajwayelekile asindayo noma izinhlayiya ezisanda kuphakanyiswa zokuqala (njenge-WIMPs noma ama-axon), ukubala nje ezimbalwa. Impendulo ecacile mayelana nokwakheka kwayo ingenye yemibuzo esemqoka ye-cosmology yanamuhla ne-particle physics.

Ukuba khona kwendaba emnyama kumqoka ukuqonda imodeli yeBig Bang yokwakheka kwendawo yonke kanye nezindlela zokuziphatha zezinto zesikhala. Izibalo zesayensi zibonisa ukuthi kuningi kakhulu okushiwo endaweni yonke kunokuba kubonakale. Isibonelo, indlela yokuziphatha ebikezelwe yemithala ivame ukushintsha ngaphandle kwesizathu, ngaphandle uma kungenzeka ukuthi into engabambeki inamandla okuguquguquka odabeni olubonakalayo.

I-Antimatter namandla amnyama endaweni yonke

amandla amnyama

Akufanele sididanise into emnyama ne-antimatter. Lesi sakamuva siyindlela yendaba ejwayelekile, njengodaba olusibumbayo, kepha lakhiwe izinhlayiya eziyisisekelo ezinezimpawu eziphikisana nogesi: okuhle / okubi.

I-anti-electron iyinhlayiyana ye-antimatter, ehambelana ne-electron, kepha inecala lokukhokha elihle kunokuba necala elibi. I-Antimatter ayikho ngendlela ezinzile ngoba ibhubhisa ngendaba (etholakala ngesilinganiso esikhulu), ngakho-ke ayizihleleli ngokwama-athomu abonakalayo nama-molecule. I-Antimatter ingatholakala kuphela ngama-accelerators ezinhlayiya. Noma kunjalo, ukukhiqizwa kwayo kuyinkimbinkimbi futhi kuyabiza.

Amandla amnyama uhlobo lwamandla akhona endaweni yonke futhi athambekele ekusheshiseni ukwanda kwawo ngokuxosha amandla adonsela phansi noma amandla. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi u-68% wezinto ezinamandla endaweni yonke ungowalolu hlobo, futhi luhlobo olufanayo kakhulu lwamandla olungasebenzisani nanoma yimaphi amanye amandla ayisisekelo endaweni yonke, yingakho kuthiwa "amnyama". Kepha, empeleni, akuhlangene neze nendaba emnyama.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi uyini umhlaba, imvelaphi yawo nezici zawo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.