Liyini idwala

yini idwala

Emhlabeni wethu kunamadwala ezinhlobonhlobo. Selokhu kwakhiwa iplanethi yethu, izigidi zakhiwe eminyakeni edlule futhi ngokuya ngezici, imvelaphi kanye nemvelaphi kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene. Ake sichaze yini idwala kusukela ekubukeni komhlaba ukuze siqonde kangcono ukuthi iplanethi yethu yakhiwa kanjani.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ukuthi liyini idwala, yiziphi izici zalo nokuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ezikhona.

Liyini idwala

sedimentary

Amadwala enziwe ngamaminerali noma ukuhlanganiswa kwamaminerali ngamanye. Kuhlobo lokuqala, sine-granite, futhi kumaminerali, sinosawoti wedwala njengesibonelo. Ukwakhiwa kwamatshe kuyinqubo ehamba kancane futhi ilandela inqubo ehlukile. Ngokuya ngohlobo lwamadwala, zingahlukaniswa zibe izinhlobo ezintathu: amadwala angama-igneous, amadwala ase-sedimentary, namatshe we-metamorphic. Lawa madwala awahlali unomphela, kepha ahlala eguquka futhi eshintsha. Vele, ziyizinguquko esikhathini se-geologic. Ngamanye amagama, ngokwesilinganiso somuntu, ngeke sikubone ukwakheka nokubhujiswa kwedwala eliphelele, kepha banalokho okubizwa ngokuthi umjikelezo wedwala.

Izinhlobo zamadwala

liyini idwala nezici

Amatshe aseSedimentary

Lawo madwala akhiwa ukunqwabelana kwezinhlayiya ezihlukene ezinobukhulu obuhlukahlukene, obuvela kwezinye izinhlayiya ezinamadwala, abizwa kanjalo. Zonke izinhlayiya ezakha idwala zibizwa ngokuthi izidalwa. Lokhu kungumsuka wegama layo. Lezi zinsalela zihanjiswa yizinto zokwakheka komhlaba ezifana namanzi, iqhwa nomoya. Iziduli ezakha amadwala asezintabeni zihanjiswa yizici ezahlukahlukene zokwakheka komhlaba bese zibekwa ezindaweni ezibizwa ngokuthi yizidengezi.

Enkambisweni yokuthuthwa kwensika, izinhlayiya zamatshe zizobhekana nezinqubo ezahlukahlukene zomzimba nezamakhemikhali ezibizwa nge-diagenesis. Ngaleli gama, sibhekisa kunqubo yokwakhiwa kwamatshe. Isimo esijwayelekile ukwakheka kwe- amadwala asezintabeni osebeni lwemifula, imibhede yolwandle, amachibi, iziziba, imifudlana noma imihosha. Ukwakhiwa kwamadwala asezintabeni kwenzeka ngaphezu kwezigidigidi zeminyaka. Ngakho-ke, ukuze sihlaziye umsuka nokwakheka kwamadwala asezintabeni, isilinganiso sezikhathi zokwakheka komhlaba kufanele sicatshangelwe.

Amatshe kaPlutonic

Ngokulandelayo sizochaza izici eziyinhloko zalolu hlobo lwedwala olwakhiwe kulezi zidalwa ezibalulwe ngenhla. Imvamisa ziminyene futhi azinayo imigodi. Ukuthungwa kwayo kubi kakhulu futhi kwenziwa ngezinto eziningana. Zihluke kakhulu ngoba singathola izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zokwakhiwa kwamakhemikhali ngokuya ngohlobo lwe-magma ezivela kuyo.

Lamadwala agcwele kakhulu ebusweni bomhlaba futhi athathwa njengamatshe endabuko. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi lamatshe athanda ukwakheka kwamanye amatshe. Lezi zinhlobo zamatshe zitholakala nasemikhawulweni yamaplanethi asemhlabeni, njengeMercury, iVenus, neMars, nakwamanye amaplanethi amakhulu kagesi, njenge USaturn, uJupiter, u-Uranus noNeptune.

Amatshe agneous

Amatshe angama-igneous angamatshe akhiwa ukupholisa komdanso ngaphakathi komhlaba. Inengxenye ewuketshezi yengubo ebizwa nge-asthenosphere. IMagma ingapholiswa ngaphakathi koqweqwe lomhlaba nangamandla avela kuqweqwe lomhlaba. Ngokuya ngokuthi i-magma ipholile kuphi, amakristalu azokwakhiwa ngejubane elihlukile ngandlela thile, okuholela ekwakhiweni okuhlukahlukene, okufana:

  • Kuklanyelwe: Lapho i-magma iphola kancane futhi amaminerali ekhanya, izinhlayiya ezibonakalayo zohlobo olufana kakhulu zizovela.
  • I-Porphyry: i-magma ikhiqizwa uma iphola ngezikhathi ezahlukahlukene. Ekuqaleni yaqala ukuphola kancane, kepha yabe ishesha futhi ishesha.
  • I-Vitreous. Kubizwa nangokuthi ukuthungwa okunesibindi. Kwenzeka lapho i-magma iphola ngokushesha. Ngale ndlela, ingilazi ayakheki, kepha ibukeka njengengilazi.

Amatshe we-Metamorphic

Bangamadwala akhiwe kusuka kwamanye amadwala. Imvamisa zakhiwe ngamatshe asezintabeni abhekane nezinqubo zokuguqulwa komzimba nezamakhemikhali. Izici zokwakheka komhlaba ezifana nengcindezi nokushisa okuguqula idwala. Ngakho-ke, uhlobo lwedwala luxhomeke kumaminerali eliqukethe kanye nezinga lokuguqulwa kwawo ngenxa yezici zokwakheka komhlaba.

Amaminerali

idwala elingenalutho

Asikwazi ukuqeda ukuchaza ukuthi idwala liyini ngaphandle kokukhuluma ngamaminerali. Amaminerali akhiwe ngezinto eziqinile, zemvelo, nezinto ezingaphili ezivela kumagma. Zingabuye zakhiwe ngokushintshwa kwamanye amaminerali akhona futhi akhiwe. I-mineral ngayinye inesakhiwo samakhemikhali esicacile, esincike ngokuphelele ekwakhiweni kwayo. Inqubo yokwakheka kwayo inezici ezihlukile zomzimba.

Amaminerali ayale ama-athomu. Lawa ma-athomu aziwa ukuthi akha iseli eliziphindayo kulo lonke ukwakheka kwangaphakathi. Lezi zakhiwo zikhiqiza ukwakheka okuthile kwejometri okuthi, noma kungabonakali njalo ngeso lenyama, kodwa kube khona.

I-unit cell yakha amakristalu ahlangana ndawonye futhi akhe isakhiwo se-lattice noma se-lattice. Lawa makristalu akha amaminerali ahamba kancane kakhulu. Ukuhamba kancane kokwakhiwa kwekristalu, ukuhleleka okuthe xaxa yizo zonke izinhlayiya, ngakho-ke, inqubo yenqubo yokufakwa kwamakhemikhali ibe ngcono.

Amakristalu amaminerali awahlukanisiwe, kepha ahlanganiswa. Uma amakristalu amabili noma ngaphezulu ekhula endizeni eyodwa noma ku-eksisi yokulinganisa, kubhekwa isakhiwo samaminerali esibizwa ngamakristalu amawele. Isibonelo samawele yi-crystalline rock quartz. Uma amaminerali emboza ubuso bedwala, azokwakha ama-clumps noma ama-dendrites. Isibonelo, i-pyrolusite.

Ngokuphambene nalokho, uma amaminerali ekhanya emgodini wedwala, kwakhiwa isakhiwo esibizwa nge-geodesic. La ma-geodeics athengiswa emhlabeni wonke ngobuhle bawo nokuhlobisa kwawo. I-Olivine yisibonelo esicacile se-geode. Kukhona nama-geodeics amakhulu, njengemayini yasePulpi e-Almería.

Kunamazinga ehlukene wokuhlukanisa amaminerali. Ake siqale ngesokuqala. Ngokusho kokwakhiwa kwamaminerali, kungahlukaniswa ngendlela elula. Zihlukaniswe zaba:

  • Insimbi: Amaminerali ensimbi akhiwa yi-magma. Okudume kakhulu ngethusi nesiliva, i-limonite, i-magnetite, i-pyrite, i-malachite, i-azurite noma i-cinnabar.
  • Okungeyona insimbi. Phakathi kokungasensimbi, sinama-silicates, ingxenye yawo enkulu i-silicon dioxide. Zakhiwa yi-magma asthenosphere. Angamaminerali afana ne-olivine, i-ecology, i-talc, i-muscovite, i-quartz, ushukela oluhlaza, nobumba. Siphinde sibe nosawoti wamaminerali, owakhiwa ngosawoti ogeleza lapho amanzi olwandle ehwamuka. Zingakhiwa futhi ngokuvuselelwa kabusha kwamanye amaminerali. Amaminerali akhiwa imvula. Isibonelo, sine-calcite, i-gypsum, i-magnesite, i-anhydrite, njll.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi liyini idwala nezimpawu zalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.