yini i-lava

yini i-lava

Izintaba-mlilo ezinye zezindlela ezihlaba umxhwele kakhulu zokuma kwezwe, nakuba ukuqhuma kwazo ngezinye izikhathi kungase kubeke abantu abaseduze kwazo engozini. Kunezifunda eziningi ezinkulu ezinezintaba-mlilo eMhlabeni kanti amanye ama-craters ayasebenza. Yingakho kubalulekile ukuqonda yonke imigomo ehlobene nesihloko ukubeka kangcono imiqondo kumongo. Ngokwesibonelo, yini i-lava, indlela eyakhiwe ngayo noma indlela ehluke ngayo esikhumbeni sentaba-mlilo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi yini i-lava, yiziphi izici zayo, imvelaphi kanye nokwehluka kwe-magma.

yini i-lava

kuyini udaka lwentabamlilo

Ngaphakathi eMhlabeni, ukushisa kunamandla kangangokuthi amadwala namagesi akha isiphuku kuyancibilika. Iplanethi yethu inomgogodla owenziwe ngodaka. Lo mgogodla umbozwe uqweqwe kanye nezingqimba zamatshe aqinile. Le nto encibilikisiwe eyakha i-magma, futhi uma idudulelwa ebusweni bomhlaba, siyibiza ngokuthi: i-lava. Nakuba izingqimba ezimbili ze-crust ne-rock zihlukile, iqiniso liwukuthi zombili zishintsha njalo: idwala eliqinile liba uketshezi futhi ngokuphambene nalokho. Uma i-magma ingena oqweqweni lomhlaba futhi ifike emhlabeni, iphenduka ibe udaka.

Kukho konke lokhu, sibiza i-lava ngokuthi yi-magma material ephume oqweqweni lomhlaba futhi ngaleyo ndlela yasakazekela phezulu. Izinga lokushisa lodaka liphezulu kakhulu, lisukela phakathi kuka-700°C no-1200°C, Ngokungafani ne-magma, engaphola ngokushesha, udaka luminyene ngakho kuthatha isikhathi eside ukuphola. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu zokuthi kungani kuyingozi kakhulu ukusondela endaweni lapho kuqhume khona intaba-mlilo, ngisho noma ngemva kwezinsuku ezimbalwa.

Izinhlobo zokugeleza kwe-lava

umagma

Uma sikhuluma ngodaka, empeleni sibhekisela ekugelezeni kwe-lava, okuyizingqimba zodaka oluwuketshezi olwakhayo lapho kuqhuma intaba-mlilo. Uma ucubungula lesi simo, umbono ovame kakhulu yilowo we intaba-mlilo yasemhlabeni ekhafula ungqimba olubushelelezi lwe-lava eyehla kancane kancane emthambekeni.

Kodwa-ke, kunezimo ezihlukene ezikhiqiza izinhlobo ezahlukene ze-lava, njenge-fissure lava. Kulezi zimo, ungqimba lwe-lava lwanda futhi lwahlanganisa indawo enkulu efana nomfula, ngokungafani necala langaphambilini.

Kunezici eziningi ezithinta uhlobo lwe-lava ekhishwayo (eqhuma), njengokubunjwa, okuthinta indlela ebukeka ngayo uma iqina, ngakho-ke. ngokusobala kukhona ukuhlukaniswa okuhlukanisayo kube ezinye izinhlobo ze-lava.

Ukuhlukaniswa kusekelwe ku-morphology yazo futhi kuncike kakhulu ekubunjweni nasekubukeni kwazo, esizozihlola ngezansi:

i-block casting

Lolu hlobo lwe-lava luthola igama lalo ngokubukeka kwalo okuxakile. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi izithako zayo zine-asidi eningi kunokujwayelekile, okwenza ingabi namanzi. Lezi zinhlobo ze-lava ziqoqana ngoba azihambisani kancane futhi zakha ama-clumps. Amabhulokhi awajwayelekile futhi made futhi awanakho ukubukeka kwesihlabathi. Ziyi-lava flows equkethe i-silica eningi.

Kulokhu, udaka luwuketshezi ngandlela-thile, lu-viscous futhi kunzima ukulususa, ngakho lwakha izigaxa njengoba luvame ukushona phansi futhi luhlephule, okuholela ekubeni nezigaxa. Kubuye kube nomthelela obalulekile ekuphumeni okungazelelwe kwe-lava, okuvumela ukubonakala kwalawa maphutha. Omunye umphumela wale viscosity ukuthi iqina ngokushesha.

I-AA ilondolo

Lawa ma-lava ahlobene eduze nama-lava amakhulu, njengoba izigaba eziningi ziwabeka esigabeni esifanayo. Igama layo eliyingqayizivele lisuselwa egameni lesiHawaii elisho "itshe elicwebile le-lava.". Baphinde bakhe amaqembu anezindawo eziyisicaba nezingalingani. La mabhuloki abizwa ngokuthi i-clinker.

Ihlukile esimweni sangaphambilini ngoba ukwakheka kwayo akunayo i-acidic kakhulu, ngakho-ke le lava igeleza kangcono futhi inokubukeka okuncane kakhulu. I-lava iwuhlobo lwe-basaltic futhi yenza izigaxa ezimahhadlahhadla nezingajwayelekile. Ijubane layo lokuya phambili lihamba kancane, liphakathi kwamamitha angu-5 no-50 ngehora. Lesi simo senza ukuthi isiphetho sibonakale singcolile futhi siyadida.

I-Pahoehoe Laundry

Lezi zinhlobo ze-lava zakhiwe ngokuyisisekelo futhi zinamandla okuhamba amabanga amade. Igama lakhe futhi livela egameni lesiHawaii elisho "cute." Ibizwa nangokuthi isikhunta socingo, ngoba ibukeka njengesethi yezintambo ezihleliwe.

Lokhu kwakheka kungenxa yento efana necala langaphambilini. Nalapha futhi, ingaphezulu lalolu hlobo lodaka luphola kuqala, futhi ngaphansi kwalolu udaka udaka luqhubeka lugeleza lusesimweni esiwuketshezi. Esimweni esinjalo, umehluko yi-viscosity ye-lava. Ngenxa ye-viscosity ephansi kanye ne-fluidity, ayibhubhisi izinto eziqinile ezingaphezulu, kodwa iyayikhubaza, ukuze kwakheke uchungechunge lwamagagasi phezu kwalolu daka olubonisa ukugcwala kwe-lava ekhiqizwa ngaphakathi.

umcamelo lava

I-lava evikelayo ungqimba lodaka oluqinile ngaphansi kwamanzi. Bathola igama labo eqinisweni lokuthi bafana nemicamelo, ebekwe phezu komunye nomunye.

Ukuma kwayo kuyindilinga, kodwa kunezinhlobo eziningi ezahlukene: block, spherical, tubular, njll. Nakuba zifana ngokubukeka, ziyahlukahluka kakhulu kuye ngokuthi hlobo luni lodaka kanye nezimo lapho kwenzeka khona isenzakalo sokufiphala. Nakuba ukupholisa kwakucishe kube ngokuphazima kweso, ingaphezulu lalingasheleli, linemibimbi, imifantu, ama-grooves, nama-engeli amaningi angakwesokudla.

Umehluko phakathi kwe-lava ne-magma

i-magma evela kwintaba-mlilo

Ngokuyisisekelo, ungase ucabange ukuthi i-lava ne-magma yinto efanayo, kodwa ayifani. Okokuqala, lapho usondelana nengqikithi, ingcindezi iyanda. Ngakho-ke, lapho kuba nengcindezi eyengeziwe, kuba negesi eningi ekubunjweni kwayo futhi igesi eyengeziwe ikhishwa phezulu. Iphinde ibe namazinga okushisa aphansi, ihlangane nomoya osemkhathini noma emanzini, futhi lapho udaka olungaphansi kwamanzi selukhululiwe, lugcina luqinile, ngaleso sikhathi luyayeka ukuba udaka lube yidwala lentaba-mlilo. Nakuba i-magma ne-lava ngezinye izikhathi zisetshenziswa njengezinomqondo ofanayo, iqiniso liwukuthi amagama amabili ahlukene. Zombili zihlobene nezintaba-mlilo kodwa zichaza imiqondo emibili ehlukene.

I-Magma igama elinikezwe izingqimba zamatshe ancibilikisiwe oqweqweni Lomhlaba ezichayeka emazingeni okushisa aphezulu. Yakhiwe ngezinhlayiya eziwuketshezi, eziguquguqukayo neziqinile. Uma i-magma iphola, iba yidwala elivuthayo, elingahlukaniswa libe izinhlobo ezimbili ngokusekelwe endaweni yalo:

  • I-Plutonic: Uma ingaphakathi kwegxolo.
  • Intaba-mlilo: Uma i-magma incibilika futhi ikhuphukela ebusweni bomhlaba.

I-Lava yinto yemvelo ye-geological eye yakha iziqhingi eziningi emhlabeni, njengeziqhingi zaseCanary, ezinokuqhuma okuqhubekayo kwentaba-mlilo kanye nokukhishwa kwe-lava izinkulungwane zeminyaka.

Ngithemba ukuthi ungaqonda kangcono ukuthi iyini i-lava kanye nomehluko wayo nge-magma.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   i-francisco kusho

    Eyingqayizivele emlandweni ukuthi ngobukhulu obukhulu obungenakuqhathaniswa bathatha umsebenzi ngempumelelo yokukhulula abanye abantu ngemuva kokukhululwa kwezwe lethu laseVenezuela, elizalelwe eVenezuela, ukucabanga kwakhe konke okungavamile, lokhu kungenye yeziningi, uma imvelo iphikisana sizokulwa nayo. futhi sizoyenza isilalele amazwi akhulunywa ukuzamazama kwezwe lakithi ngo-1812, ngomunye waseVenezuela odumile owahamba nathi kusukela ngo-1999 kuya ku-2013 bangoSimón Bolívar noHugo Rafael Chávez baguqule izwe lakithi laseVenezuela futhi elingenakunqotshwa phakade, namuhla siyaqhubeka ekulweni nomongameli waseVenezuela umholi ezinyathelweni ezifanayo uNicolás Maduro Moros umqondo waphakade esingenakuhlulwa.