Yini i-ecosystem

yini i-ecosystem

Abantu abaningi abazi yini i-ecosystem. I-ecosystems yizinhlelo zebhayoloji ezakhiwe ngamaqoqo ezinto eziphilayo ezisebenzisana zodwa kanye nendawo engokwemvelo ezihlala kuyo. Kunobudlelwano obuningi phakathi kwezinhlobo zezilwane naphakathi kwabantu bohlobo olufanayo. Izinto eziphilayo zidinga indawo yokuhlala, okuyinto esiyibiza ngokuthi indawo yokuhlala yemvelo. Endaweni ohlala kuyo, kuvame ukubizwa ngokuthi i-biome noma i-biome. Izinhlobonhlobo zemvelo zikhona emhlabeni wonke, ngayinye inezitshalo nezilwane ezihlukile ezithonywa izimo zokuma komhlaba nezemvelo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi iyini i-ecosystem, yiziphi izici zayo kanye nezinhlobo ezahlukene ezikhona.

Yini i-ecosystem

jungle

Uma sithi zonke izinhlobo zezilwane zihlala endaweni ezungezile, kungenxa yokuthi itholakala endaweni lapho kuhlangana khona izinto eziphilayo nezingaphili. Ngalokhu kusebenzisana, udaba namandla kungashintshwa, futhi ibhalansi esiyaziyo isekela ukuphila. Engeza isiqalo esithi eco- njengoba sisho indawo yemvelo ngokuphelele.

Singasho ukuthi imiqondo ethile idalwe ezingeni le-ecology, njenge-biome, ebhekisela endaweni enkulu yendawo ehlanganisa i-ecosystem eminingi enqunyelwe ezindaweni ezikhawulelwe kakhulu. Ku-ecosystem, isifundo sobudlelwano phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo nendawo ezungezile. Singasho ukuthi isilinganiso se-ecosystem sishintsha kakhulu, ngoba singasho ukuthi ihlathi liyi-ecosystem futhi ichibi lesikhunta esifanayo libuye libe yi-ecosystem evamile. Ngale ndlela, abantu kuphela abangachaza imingcele yendawo okufanele ifundwe.

Izifunda zivame ukuhlukaniswa ngokuya ngezici zazo ngoba zihlukile kwezinye izifunda. Uma sibuyela esibonelweni sangaphambilini, echibini ku ihlathi linezimo zemvelo ezihlukile kunengxenye yasemhlabeni yehlathi. Yingakho ingahlala izinhlobo ezahlukene zezitshalo nezilwane futhi ibe nezinye izinhlobo zezimo.

Ngalo mqondo, singabona ukuthi izinhlobo ezahlukene ze-ecosystem zihlukaniswa kanjani ngokwemibandela ehlukene. Singakhuluma nge-ecosystem yemvelo kanye ne-artificial ecosystems. Ekugcineni, kukhona ukungenelela komuntu.

Izingxenye

Sizofunda ukuthi ziyini izingxenye ezihlukene ze-ecosystem nokuthi zixhumana kanjani ne-abiotic kanye ne-biotic components. Zonke lezi zingxenye zikunethiwekhi eyinkimbinkimbi yokushintshana okungaguquki kwento namandla. Ake sihlaziye ukuthi ziyini ngokuningiliziwe:

  • Izingxenye ze-Abiotic: Lapho sibhekisela kulezi zingxenye, sibhekisela kuzo zonke izakhi eziyihlanganisayo kodwa ezingenakuphila. Singasho ukuthi ziyizingxenye ze-abiotic noma ezingenasici njengamanzi, inhlabathi, umoya namadwala. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunezinye izakhi zemvelo ezifana nemisebe yelanga, isimo sezulu sesifunda, nezinto zobuciko kanye nemfucuza nayo ebhekwa njengezingxenye ze-abiotic.
  • Izingxenye zebhayoloji: Lezi zingxenye zihlanganisa zonke izinto eziphilayo ezikhona ku-ecosystem. Kungaba amabhaktheriya, i-archaea, isikhunta, nanoma yisiphi isitshalo noma isilwane, kuhlanganise nabantu. Kungafinyezwa ukuthi ziyizakhi eziphilayo.

Izinhlobo nezimpawu

Imvelo yasemanzini

Sizobona ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ze-ecosystem ezikhona emhlabeni. Zingahlukaniswa ngamaqembu amakhulu ama-4, kanje:

  • I-ecosystem ye-Terestrial: I-ecosystem lapho izingxenye ze-biotic ne-abiotic zisebenzelana khona emhlabeni noma ngaphakathi koMhlaba. Siyazi ukuthi ngaphakathi eMhlabeni, inhlabathi iyisimiso sezinto eziphilayo esivamile ngenxa yamandla ayo okusekela nokuthuthukisa ukuhlukahluka okukhulu. Imvelo esemhlabeni ichazwa izinhlobo zezitshalo ezizisungulayo, zona ezisungulwa yizimo zemvelo kanye nezinhlobo zesimo sezulu. Uhlaza lunesibopho sokusebenzisana nezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezinothile.
  • Izimiso zemvelo zasemanzini: Ama-ecosystems abonakala kakhulu ngokusebenzisana kwezingxenye ze-biotic kanye ne-abiotic emanzini awuketshezi. Kungashiwo ukuthi, ngalo mqondo, kunezinhlobo ezimbili kakhulu zezinto eziphilayo zasolwandle, okuphakathi kwazo okunezimo zemvelo zamanzi anosawoti kanye nezindawo ezihlala emanzini ahlanzekile. Lezi zakamuva zivame ukuhlukaniswa zibe i-lenti ne-lotic. i-lentic yilawo manzi lapho amanzi ehamba kancane noma emile. Ngokuvamile amachibi namachibi. Amaloshini wona ngalawa anamanzi agelezayo ashesha njengemifula nemifula.
  • Imvelo exubile: Ama-ecosystem ahlanganisa okungenani izindawo ezimbili, ezisemhlabeni nezasemanzini. Nakuba ezimweni eziningi lezi zimiso zemvelo nazo zihilela indawo engemuva yomoya, izinto eziphilayo kufanele zizivumelanise ukuze zithole ubudlelwano phakathi kwazo nendawo ezungezile. Kungenziwa ngesikhashana nje noma ngezikhathi ezithile, njengase-savanna egcwele izikhukhula noma ihlathi lase-Varzea. Lapha, sibona ukuthi isici sezinto eziphilayo izinyoni zasolwandle, njengoba ikakhulukazi zisemhlabeni, kodwa futhi zincike olwandle ukuze zidle.
  • i-ecosystem yabantu: Isici sawo esiyinhloko ukushintshana kwezinto namandla, ukuphuma nokungena ku-ecosystem, okuncike ngokuyisisekelo kumuntu. Nakuba ezinye izici ze-abiotic zihilelekile ngokwemvelo, njengemisebe yelanga, umoya, amanzi, nomhlaba, ngokuyinhloko zilawulwa abantu.

Izibonelo ezithile

Ake sibhale ezinye izibonelo zezinhlobo ezahlukene ze-ecosystem.

  • Ihlathi: Iwuhlobo lwe-ecosystem enenhlanganisela eyinkimbinkimbi yezingxenye lapho sithola khona izinto eziphilayo ezakha amawebhu okudla ayinkimbinkimbi. Izihlahla zikhiqiza kakhulu futhi zonke izinto eziphilayo zigaywa kabusha ngemva kokubulawa izibolisi zenhlabathi ehlathini.
  • Izixhobo zamakhorali: Kule ecosystem, izakhi ezimaphakathi zokwakheka kwezinto eziphilayo ama-coral polyp. Izixhobo zamakhorali eziphilayo ziyikhaya lezinye izinhlobo eziningi zasemanzini.
  • Ihlathi laseVarzea: Kuyihlathi elakhiwe ithafa eligqunywe kahle eligcwala amanzi ngezikhathi ezithile. Iyachuma kuma-biomes aziwa ngokuthi amanani ashisayo. Iqukethe i-ecosystem exubile lapho ingxenye ye-ecosystem isemhlabeni kakhulu kanti enye ingxenye kakhulu ihlala emanzini.

Izinhlobo zemvelo

amahlathi

Isimo semvelo somhlaba

Phakathi kwezinhlobo ze-ecosystems yasemhlabeni, kuyadingeka ukucabangela izindawo lapho izinto eziphilayo zikhula khona. Ingaphezulu lomhlaba lapho zithuthuka khona futhi ukwakha ubudlelwano nomunye kubizwa ngokuthi i-biosphere. Le ecosystem yenzeka ngaphezulu nangaphansi komhlaba. Izimo esingazithola kulezi zindawo eziphilayo zinqunywa izici ezifana nomswakama, izinga lokushisa, ukuphakama kanye nobubanzi.

Lezi zinhlobonhlobo ezine zinquma ukukhula kwempilo endaweni ethile. Amazinga okushisa ahlala engaphansi kwezingaqhwa ahlukene mayelana nama-degree angu-20. Singakwazi futhi ukukhomba imvula yonyaka njengokuhluka okuyinhloko. Le mvula izonquma ukuthi hlobo luni lwempilo eyenzeka endaweni yalo. Izitshalo nezilwane ezizungeze umfula zihlukile kulokho esingakuthola e-savannah.

Uma uphezulu umswakamo nezinga lokushisa, kanye nokwehla kokuphakama kanye ne-latitude, kulapho sithola ukuhlukahluka nokuhluka kakhulu kwezinhlelo zemvelo. Zivame ukuba nezinhlobo eziningi zezilwane futhi zinezigidi zokusebenzelana phakathi kwezinhlobo zezilwane nendawo ezizungezile. Okuphambene kuyiqiniso ama-ecosystems akhula ezindaweni eziphakeme kanye nomswakama ophansi kanye nezinga lokushisa.

Ngokuvamile, i-ecosystem yasemhlabeni ihluke kakhulu futhi inothe ngokwebhayoloji kune-ecosystem yasemanzini. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi kunokukhanya okwengeziwe, ukushisa kwelanga, nokufinyelela kalula kokudla.

Imvelo yasolwandle

Imvelo yasolwandle

Lolu hlobo lwe-ecosystem inkulu kunawo wonke yonke iplanethi njengoba ihlanganisa u-70% wobuso beplanethi. Ulwandle lukhulu futhi amanzi anothile ngamaminerali, ngakho impilo ingathuthuka cishe kuwo wonke amagumbi.

Kulezi zinhlelo zemvelo, sithola imiphakathi emikhulu efana notshani basolwandle, ama-deep-sea vents, nezixhobo zamakhorali.

i-ecosystem yamanzi ahlanzekile

Nakuba zingena ezindaweni eziphila emanzini, ukuguquguquka nobudlelwano phakathi kwezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo akufani emanzini angenasawoti njengasemanzini anosawoti. Imvelo yamanzi ahlanzekile iyisimiso semvelo esakhiwe amachibi nemifula, ehlukaniswe yaba izinhlelo zamanzi anganyakazi, izinhlelo zamanzi ahambayo, kanye nezinhlelo zamaxhaphozi.

Uhlelo lwe-lentic luqukethe amachibi namachibi. Igama elithi lentic libhekisela esivinini amanzi ahamba ngaso. Kulokhu, ukunyakaza kuphansi kakhulu. Kulolu hlobo lwamanzi, kwakheka izingqimba kuye ngokuthi izinga lokushisa nosawoti. Kungalesi sikhathi lapho kuvela khona izingqimba ezingenhla, ze-thermocline nezingezansi. Amasistimu we-Lotic amasistimu lapho amanzi egeleza ngokushesha, njengemifula nama-rapids. Kulezi zimo, amanzi ahamba ngokushesha ngenxa yokuthambekela kwendawo kanye namandla adonsela phansi.

Amaxhaphozi ayizinto eziphilayo ezahlukahlukene ngenxa yokuthi agcwele amanzi. Ilungele izinyoni ezifudukayo kanye nalezo ezidla ngezihlungi, njengama-flamingo.

Izinhlobo ezithile zezilwane ezinomgogodla, okuhlanganisa eziphakathi nendawo nezincane, zibusa lezi zinhlobo zemvelo. Asizange siwathole amakhulu ngoba ayengenayo indawo yokukhula.

Izingwadule

Njengoba ogwadule linemvula encane kakhulu, nezitshalo nezilwane nazo ziyana. Izinto eziphilayo kulezi zindawo zinamandla amakhulu okuphila ngenxa yezinkulungwane zeminyaka yezinqubo zokuzijwayeza. Kulokhu, njengoba ubudlelwano phakathi kwezinhlobo zezilwane buncane, ziyizici ezinqumayo, ngakho-ke ibhalansi yemvelo ngeke iphazamiseke. Ngakho-ke, lapho uhlobo oluthile luthintwa kakhulu yinoma yiluphi uhlobo lomthelela wendawo, sizithola sinemiphumela enzima kakhulu yokubambisa.

Futhi, uma uhlobo olulodwa lwezilwane luqala ukunciphisa kakhulu amanani alo, sizothola ezinye eziningi zisengozini. Kulezi zindawo zemvelo sithola izitshalo ezijwayelekile njenge-cacti kanye nezihlahlana ezinamahlamvu amahle. Izilwane zihlanganisa ezinye izilwane ezihuquzelayo, izinyoni nezinye izilwane ezincelisayo ezincane neziphakathi. Lezi yizinhlobo ezikwazi ukuzivumelanisa nalezi zindawo.

Intaba

Lolu hlobo lwe-ecosystem lubonakala ngokukhululeka kwalo. Kusendaweni ephakeme lapho uhlaza nezilwane zingakhuli kahle. Kulezi zindawo, izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo aziphezulu kangako. Yehla lapho sikhuphuka ngokuphakama. Amagquma entaba avame ukuhlalwa yizinhlobo eziningi zezilwane futhi kukhona ukuxhumana phakathi kwezinhlobo nemvelo.

Phakathi kwezinhlobo ezitholakala kule mvelo kukhona izimpisi, izinyamazane nezimbuzi zasezintabeni. Kukhona futhi izinyoni ezidla inyama, njengama-bald eagles nama-eagles. Izilwane kufanele zizivumelanise nezimo futhi zifihle ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuphila ngaphandle kokuba zizingelwe zodwa.

Amahlathi nezinhlelo zamahlathi

eziphilayo

Imvelo yamahlathi ibonakala ngokuminyana okuphezulu kwezihlahla kanye nenani elikhulu lezitshalo nezilwane. Kunezinhlobo eziningana zemvelo yehlathi, phakathi kwazo esithola ihlathi, ihlathi elipholile, ihlathi elomile kanye nehlathi le-coniferous. Lapho izihlahla ziba ziningi, kulapho kunezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo.

Ukuphakama kudlala indima ebalulekile phambi kwezitshalo. Ukuphakama kokuphakama, ukucindezela okuncane nomoya-mpilo kuyatholakala. Ngakho-ke, kusukela endaweni ephakeme ngamamitha angu-2500 ngaphezu kolwandle, izihlahla ngeke zikhule.

Ngethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi iyini i-ecosystem nokuthi ziyini izici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.