Yini i-cartography

imephu yokuziphendukela kwemvelo

IJografi inamagatsha amaningi abalulekile afunda izici ezahlukahlukene zeplanethi yethu. Elinye lala magatsha i-cartography. Ukudweba amabalazwe yikona okusisiza ukuthi senze amamephu esijwayele ukujika kuwo ukuze sibone izindawo ngeso lengqondo. Nokho, abantu abaningi abazi yini i-cartography noma lesisiyalo siphetheni.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nokuthi i-cartography iyini nezici zayo.

Yini i-cartography

yini imephu yezenhlalo

I-Cartography igatsha lezwe elibhekene nokumelwa okuyingcaca kwezindawo zezwe, ngokuvamile ngezinhlangothi ezimbili nangokwemibandela evamile. Ngamanye amazwi, ukudweba amabalazwe kuwubuciko nesayensi yokwenza, ukuhlaziya, ukutadisha, nokuqonda amamephu azo zonke izinhlobo. Ngokungeziwe, futhi isethi ekhona yamamephu namadokhumenti afanayo.

I-Cartography isayensi yasendulo nesimanje. Izama ukufeza isifiso somuntu sokumelela ubuso bomhlaba ngokubukeka, okunzima kakhulu ngoba kuyi-geoid.

Ukuze yenze lokhu, isayensi yaphendukela ohlelweni lokuqagela olwaluhloselwe ukusebenza njengento elinganayo phakathi kwendilinga nendiza. Ngakho-ke, wakha okulingana okubonakalayo kwe-geographic contours of the Earth, ukuguquguquka kwawo, ama-engeli awo, konke kungaphansi kwezilinganiso ezithile kanye nenqubo ye-priori yokukhetha ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezibalulekile nezingabalulekile.

Ukubaluleka kwemephu

Ukuthwebula amabalazwe kubalulekile namuhla. Kuyisidingo sayo yonke imisebenzi yokuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke, njengohwebo lwamazwe ngamazwe kanye nokuhamba ngobuningi bamazwekazi, ngoba zidinga ulwazi oluncane lokuthi izinto zikuphi emhlabeni.

Njengoba ubukhulu boMhlaba bukhulu kangangokuthi akunakwenzeka ukukucabangela uwonke, ukudweba amabalazwe kuyisayensi esivumela ukuthi sithole ukuqagela okuseduze kakhulu.

amagatsha we-cartography

yini i-cartography

I-Cartography inamagatsha amabili: i-cartography evamile kanye ne-thematic cartography.

  • I-cartography evamile. Lezi yizethulo zomhlaba ezibanzi, okungukuthi, zonke izethameli kanye nezinjongo zolwazi. Amamephu omhlaba, amamephu wamazwe, yonke imisebenzi yalo mnyango.
  • I-thematic cartography. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, leli gatsha ligxile ekumeleleni kwalo ngokwendawo ezicini ezithile, ezihlokweni noma emithethweni ethile, efana nezomnotho, ezolimo, ezezempi, njll. Isibonelo, ibalazwe lomhlaba lokuthuthukiswa kwamabele liwela ngaphakathi kwaleli gatsha le-cartography.

Njengoba sishilo ekuqaleni, i-cartography inomsebenzi omuhle kakhulu: ukuchaza iplanethi yethu ngokuningiliziwe ngamazinga ahlukene okunemba, isikali nangezindlela ezahlukene. Kuphinde kusho ukucwaninga, ukuqhathanisa nokuhlaziywa kwalawa mamephu nezethulo ukuze kuxoxwe ngamandla awo, ubuthakathaka, ukuphikisa kanye nentuthuko engenzeka.

Phela, akukho lutho olungokwemvelo mayelana nemephu: kuyinto yokucaciswa kwezobuchwepheshe namasiko, ingxenye yentuthuko yomuntu ebangelwa ngokwengxenye endleleni esicabanga ngayo iplanethi yethu.

izici ze-cartographic

Uma sikhuluma kabanzi, i-cartography isekela umsebenzi wayo wokumelela kusethi yezakhi nemiqondo eyivumela ukuthi ihlele ngokunembile okuqukethwe okuhlukile kwemephu ngokuya ngokubuka okuthile nesikali. Lezi zici ze-cartographic yilezi:

  • Isilinganiso: Njengoba umhlaba mkhulu kakhulu, ukuwumela ngokubonakalayo, sidinga ukwehlisa izinto ngendlela evamile ukuze sigcine izilinganiso. Kuye ngesilinganiso esisetshenzisiwe, amabanga avame ukukalwa ngamakhilomitha azokalwa ngamasentimitha noma amamilimitha, kutholwe izinga elilinganayo.
  • Ukufana: Umhlaba uklanywe waba amasethi amabili emigqa, isethi yokuqala kube imigqa ehambisanayo. Uma umhlaba uhlukaniswe waba yizinkabazwe ezimbili kusukela enkabazwe, khona-ke ukuhambisana kuwumugqa ohambisana naleyo eksisi evundlile ecatshangelwayo, ehlukanisa umhlaba ube izindawo ezinesimo sezulu, kusukela kweminye imigqa emibili ebizwa ngokuthi izindawo ezishisayo (Umdlavuza kanye neCapricorn).
  • Ama-meridians: Isethi yesibili yemigqa ehlukanisa imbulunga ngokohlelo, i-meridians perpendicular to the parallels, "i-eksisi" noma i-meridian emaphakathi edlula eRoyal Greenwich Observatory (eyaziwa ngokuthi "zero meridian" noma "Greenwich meridian"). ) ILondon, ngokwethiyori iqondana ne-eksisi yokujikeleza koMhlaba. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, umhlaba usuhlukene waba izingxenye ezimbili, wahlukaniswa njalo ngo-30° nge-meridian, uhlukanisa imbulunga yoMhlaba ibe uchungechunge lwezingxenye.
  • Ukudidiyela: Ngokuhlanganisa ama-latitudes nama-meridians, uthola igridi kanye nesistimu yokuxhumanisa ekuvumela ukuthi unikeze i-latitude (enqunywa ngama-latitudes) kanye ne-longitude (enqunywa ama-meridians) kunoma iyiphi indawo ephansi. Ukusetshenziswa kwalo mbono ukuthi i-GPS isebenza kanjani.
  • izimpawu ze-cartographic: Lawa mamephu anolimi lwawo futhi angabona izici ezithakaselwayo ngokuya ngezimiso ezithile. Ngakho-ke, isibonelo, ezinye izimpawu zinikezwa emadolobheni, ezinye ezinhloko-dolobha, ezinye emachwebeni nasezikhumulweni zezindiza, njll.

Imephu yedijithali

Selokhu kwavela uguquko lwedijithali ekupheleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX, zimbalwa isayensi eye yaphunyuka esidingweni sokusebenzisa ikhompuyutha. Esimweni esinjalo, i-digital cartography ukusetshenziswa kwamasathelayithi kanye nokuboniswa kwedijithali lapho kwenziwa amamephu.

Ngakho-ke indlela endala yokudweba nokuphrinta ephepheni manje isiwudaba lomqoqi kanye nokuvuna. Ngisho nomakhalekhukhwini wanamuhla olula unokufinyelela ku-inthanethi futhi ngenxa yalokho namamephu edijithali. Kunenani elikhulu lolwazi olungabuyiswa olungafakwa, futhi lungasebenza ngokuhlanganyela.

i-cartography yezenhlalo

ibalazwe lomhlaba

Imephu yomphakathi iyindlela ehlangene yokwenza imephu ebambe iqhaza. Ifuna ukwephula ukuchema okujwayelekile nokwamasiko okuhambisana nokuthwebula amabalazwe okungokwesiko okusekelwe kumbandela wokucabangela mayelana nendawo yomhlaba, ukubaluleka kwesifunda kanye nezinye izindlela zezombusazwe ezifanayo.

Ngakho-ke, imephu yezenhlalo yavela embonweni wokuthi angeke kube khona umsebenzi wemephu ngaphandle kwemiphakathi, nokuthi ukwenza imephu kufanele kwenziwe ngokuvundlile ngangokunokwenzeka.

Umlando we-cartography

Ukudweba amabalazwe kwazalwa ngenxa yesifiso somuntu sokuhlola nokuba sengozini, okwenzeka ekuqaleni kakhulu emlandweni: amabalazwe okuqala emlandweni asukela ku-6000 BC. c., okuhlanganisa nezithombe eziqoshiwe ezivela edolobheni lasendulo lase-Anatolian lase-Çatal Hüyük. Isidingo sokwenza amabalazwe cishe sasibangelwa ukusungulwa kwemizila yezohwebo nezinhlelo zezempi zokunqoba, njengoba lalingekho izwe elalinendawo ngaleso sikhathi.

Imephu yokuqala yomhlaba, okungukuthi, imephu yokuqala yomhlaba wonke eyaziwa umphakathi waseNtshonalanga kusukela ngekhulu le-XNUMX AD, umsebenzi kaClaudius Ptolemy waseRoma, mhlawumbe ukwanelisa isifiso soMbuso WaseRoma oziqhenyayo wokuhlukanisa ubukhulu bawo. imingcele.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, phakathi neNkathi Ephakathi, Umdwebo wamabalazwe wama-Arabhu wawuthuthuke kakhulu emhlabeni, kanti iShayina nayo yaqala kusukela ngekhulu lesi-XNUMX AD Kulinganiselwa ukuthi cishe amamephu omhlaba ayi-1.100 asinda kusukela eNkathini Ephakathi.

Ukuqhuma kwangempela kwezithombe zamabalazwe zaseNtshonalanga kwenzeka ngokwanda kwemibuso yokuqala yaseYurophu phakathi kwekhulu leshumi nanhlanu neleshumi nesikhombisa. Ekuqaleni, abadwebi bamabalazwe baseYurophu babekopisha amabalazwe amadala futhi bawasebenzise njengesisekelo sawo, kwaze kwaba yilapho ukusungulwa kwekhampasi, isibonakude, nokuhlola kubenza balangazelele ukunemba okwengeziwe.

Ngakho, imbulunga endala yasemhlabeni, isithombe esidala kunazo zonke esisekhona esinezinhlangothi ezintathu ezibonwayo zomhlaba wesimanje, eyabhalwa ngo-1492, iyincwadi kaMartín Behaim. I-United States (ngaphansi kwalelo gama) yasungulwa e-United States ngo-1507, futhi ibalazwe lokuqala elinenkabazwe abathweswe iziqu lavela ngo-1527.

Endleleni, uhlobo lwefayela le-cartographic lushintshe kakhulu emvelweni. Amashadi esitezi sokuqala enziwe ngesandla ukuze azulazule kusetshenziswa izinkanyezi njengereferensi.

Kodwa zasheshe zadlulwa ukuvela kobuchwepheshe obusha bezithombe obunjengokunyathelisa kanye ne-lithography. Muva nje, ukufika kwezinto zikagesi kanye nekhompyutha kuyiguqule unomphela indlela amamephu enziwa ngayo. Isethelayithi namasistimu wokuma komhlaba wonke manje ahlinzeka ngezithombe ezinembe kakhulu Zomhlaba kunangaphambili.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi kuyini ukudwetshwa kwamabalazwe nezici zakhona.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.